Respirable Particles and Carcinogens in the Air of Delaware Hospitality Venues Before and After a Smoking Ban

Tufts University School of Medicine, USA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.63). 10/2004; 46(9):887-905. DOI: 10.1097/01.jom.0000141644.69355.52
Source: PubMed


How do the concentrations of indoor air pollutants known to increase risk of respiratory disease, cancer, heart disease, and stroke change after a smoke-free workplace law? Real-time measurements were made of respirable particle (RSP) air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), in a casino, six bars, and a pool hall before and after a smoking ban. Secondhand smoke contributed 90% to 95% of the RSP air pollution during smoking, and 85% to 95% of the carcinogenic PPAH, greatly exceeding levels of these contaminants encountered on major truck highways and polluted city streets. This air-quality survey demonstrates conclusively that the health of hospitality workers and patrons is endangered by tobacco smoke pollution. Smoke-free workplace laws eliminate that hazard and provide health protection impossible to achieve through ventilation or air cleaning.

Download full-text


Available from: James Repace, Oct 13, 2015
38 Reads
  • Source
    • "Tobacco use is a major public health problem and the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality worldwide [1], while exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a serious health hazard for non-smokers, especially children [2-4], SHS contains over 4,000 chemical compounds, including carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, volatile- and tobacco-specific nitrosamines, as well as other toxic or irritating compounds, such as carbon monoxide, benzene, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, and respirable particulate matter [5]. Over the past few years, an accumulating body of evidence has connected SHS with concerns about the health effects of indoor air-quality in public spaces, especially hospitality venues [6] and a number of studies have indicated that the introduction of smoking bans from all public spaces results in improved air-quality [7-9] and a significant drop in hospital admissions for myocardial infarction [10-17] and respiratory problems [18]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Several countries, including Cyprus, have passed smoke-free legislations in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the indoor levels of particulate matter in hospitality venues in Cyprus before and after the implementation of the law on 1/1/2010, evaluate the role of enforcement, and examine the legislation’s effect on revenue and employment. Methods Several hospitality venues (n = 35) were sampled between April 2007 and January 2008, and 21 of those were re-sampled after the introduction of the smoking ban, between March and May 2010. Data on enforcement was provided by the Cyprus Police whereas data on revenue and employment within the hospitality industry of Cyprus were obtained from the Cyprus Statistical Service; comparisons were made between the corresponding figures before and after the implementation of the law. Results The median level of PM2.5 associated with secondhand smoking was 161 μg/m3 pre-ban and dropped to 3 μg/m3 post-ban (98% decrease, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, in the year following the ban, the hotel turnover rate increased by 4.1% and the restaurant revenue by 6.4%; employment increased that same year by 7.2% and 1.0%, respectively. Conclusion Smoke free legislations, when enforced, are highly effective in improving the air quality and reducing the levels of indoor PM2.5. Strict enforcement plays a key role in the successful implementation of smoking bans. Even in nations with high smoking prevalence comprehensive smoking laws can be effectively implemented and have no negative effect on accommodation, food, and beverage services.
    BMC Public Health 01/2013; 13(1):76. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-76 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "York and Lee [7] measured PM2.5 in nonsmoking restaurants of 16 Nevada casinos, reporting average levels of 31 μg/m3, with average levels of 48 μg/m3 in smoking gaming areas. Repace [8] measured particle levels (respirable suspended particles, RSP; and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PPAH) in eight Delaware casinos, finding that the health of casino patrons and staff was endangered -- the casino air contained 20 times more RSP, on average, than outdoor background levels. The RSP and PPAH particles were eliminated by 85% to 95% after the implementation of indoor smoking bans in the Delaware casinos. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM2.5 levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. Methods We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino) to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM2.5 concentrations (or used published levels) in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Results Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%). The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes) smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10%) and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don’t substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas encapsulated inside smoking areas or in a separate, but unenclosed, area had PM2.5 levels that were 10 to 60 μg/m3 and 6 to 23 μg/m3 higher than outdoor levels, respectively, indicating contamination from smoking. Conclusions Although fewer than roughly 10% of casino patrons are actively smoking on average, these individuals substantially increase PM2.5 exposure for all patrons in smoking and unenclosed nonsmoking areas. Nonsmoking areas may be too inconvenient, small, or undesirable to serve a substantial number of nonsmoking patrons. Imposing indoor smoking bans, or contained smoking areas with a maximum capacity of up to 10% of the total patronage, would offer protection from PM2.5 exposures for nonsmoking patrons and reduce employee exposures.
    BMC Public Health 09/2012; 12(1). DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-819 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Jiang et al., 2011). This type of monitor had been used extensively in previous similar studies assessing particulate levels from SHS, including in a study from Delaware where the SidePak AM510 was calibrated against standard pump-andfilter gravimetric methods (Repace, 2004). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Few studies have measured the effect of tobacco bans on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in prisons. From June 1, 2011, the sale of tobacco was prohibited in New Zealand prisons. One month later, the possession of tobacco was banned. We studied the indoor air quality before and after this policy was enforced. METHODS: We measured indoor-fine-particulate (PM(2.5)) concentrations using a TSI SidePak photometer. The instrument was placed in a staff base of a New Zealand maximum-security prison, adjacent to four 12-cell wings. Measurements were made before the sales restriction, during this period, and after the ban. Data were summarized using daily geometric means and generalized least squares regression. RESULTS: A total of 7,107 observations were recorded at 5-min intervals, on 14 days before and 15 days after implementation, between 24 May and 5 August. Before the policy was implemented, the geometric mean was 6.58 μg/m(3) (95% CI = 6.29-6.58), which declined to 5.17 μg/m(3) (95% CI = 4.93-5.41) during the sales ban, and fell to 2.44 μg/m(3) (95% CI = 2.37-2.52) after the smoking ban. Regression analyses revealed an average 57% (95% CI = 42-68) decline in PM(2.5) concentrations, comparing the before and after periods.Conclusions:Our study showed a rapid and substantial improvement in indoor air quality after tobacco was banned at a prison. We conclude that prisoners have reduced their smoking in line with the ban, and that a significant health hazard has been reduced for staff and prisoners alike.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 05/2012; 15(2). DOI:10.1093/ntr/nts127 · 3.30 Impact Factor
Show more