Highly active antiretroviral therapies among HIV-1-infected children in Abidjan, C??te d'Ivoire

Institut de Recherche en Cancerologie de Montpellier, Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
AIDS (Impact Factor: 5.55). 09/2004; 18(14):1905-13. DOI: 10.1097/00002030-200409240-00006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To describe the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected African children.
Observational ANRS 1244 cohort of 159 children with HIV between October 2000 and September 2002; 78 children (49%) receiving HAART were followed for a mean duration of 21 months.
Weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ), height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), CD4 lymphocyte count and HIV-1 RNA viral load were measured before initiating HAART and every 6 months during treatment. Probability of survival and incidences of pneumonia and acute diarrhoea were calculated.
Values before and after 620 days of HAART, respectively, were -2.02 and -1.39 for mean WAZ, (P < 0.01); -2.03 and -1.83 for mean HAZ (P = 0.51); 0.07 and 0.025/child-month (P = 0.002) for incidence of pneumonia; and 0.12 and 0.048/child-month for incidence of acute diarrhoea (P < 0.001) (incidence changes statistically significant only in children < 6.5 years). Overall, the probability of survival under HAART was 72.8% at 24 months for children with < 5% CD4 cells versus 97.8% in children with >/= 5% (P < 0.01). At HAART initiation, median viral load and CD4 cell percentage were 5.41 log10 copies/ml and 7.7%, respectively. After 756 days of HAART, on average, 50% of patients had undetectable viral load and 10% had 2.4-3.0 log10 copies/ml. The median CD4 percentage was 22.5%.
In resource-limited setting, it is possible to use HAART to treat African children. This treatment appears as effective as in developed countries.

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Available from: Philippe Msellati, Sep 29, 2015
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    • "Most HIV-children showed improved clinical, immunological and virological outcomes. Such therapy results are similar to those reported for adults [10] and a small cohort of older children in resource-limited settings [11]. These responses were greater than those reported in severe immunosuppression settings [12,13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces HIV-related mortality and morbidity substantially in children. The clinical characteristics, immunological and virological outcomes were evaluated in HIV-infected children receiving ART. Methods Twenty-six HIV-1-infected children receiving ART in Hubei province, China, were enrolled retrospectively in this study. During the period of ART, plasma viral load, lymphocyte phenotype of CD4 and CD8 cells and clinical events were assessed. Results The median duration of ART was 41 months (18–72.3 months). In children showing clinical improvement, high viral suppression rate below log10 (2.7) copies/ml by the third months of ART was observed. The median CD4 cell counts reached to 820.5/μl by 12 months and the median ratio of CD4/CD8 increased to 0.6 by 21 months. The counts of peripheral white blood cells and red blood cells decreased in the first 12 months, while Hb concentration, MCV and MCH increased (P < 0.001). Conclusions Despite the limited small sample size, ART is an effective strategy for inhibiting HIV replication and reconstructing the immunological response in children with AIDS.
    BMC Research Notes 07/2014; 7(1):419. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-419
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    • "Both absolute CD4 cell counts and CD4 cell percentages demonstrated a sustained immunologic response through 24 months of follow-up for all participants. Our findings are consistent with reports of effectiveness of ART in HIV-infected children from other countries in sub-Saharan Africa [2-5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up in resource-limited countries, with limited capacity for CD4 and HIV viral load monitoring, presents a unique challenge. We determined the effectiveness of first-line ART in a real world pediatric HIV clinic and explored associations between readily obtainable patient data and the trajectories of change in CD4 count and HIV viral load. We performed a longitudinal study of a cohort of HIV-infected children initiating ART at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Pediatric HIV clinic in Accra, Ghana, aged 0-13 years from 2009-2012. CD4 and viral load testing were done every 4 to 6 months and genotypic resistance testing was performed for children failing therapy. A mixed linear modeling approach, combining fixed and random subject effects, was employed for data analysis. Ninety HIV-infected children aged 0 to 13 years initiating ART were enrolled. The effectiveness of first-line regimen among study participants was 83.3%, based on WHO criteria for virologic failure. Fifteen of the 90 (16.7%) children met the criteria for virologic treatment failure after at least 24 weeks on ART. Sixty-seven percent virologic failures harbored viruses with >= 1 drug resistant mutations (DRMs); M184V/K103N was the predominant resistance pathway. Age at initiation of therapy, child's gender, having a parent as a primary care giver, severity of illness, and type of regimen were associated with treatment outcomes. First-line ART regimens were effective and well tolerated. We identified predictors of the trajectories of change in CD4 and viral load to inform targeted laboratory monitoring of ART among HIV-infected children in resource-limited countries.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 10/2013; 13(1):476. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-13-476 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    • "Single-centre studies from West Africa have documented anaemia in children on ART. However, to date there are no multi-centre data from this region [6, 7]. The paediatric West African Database on AIDS (pWADA) undertook this study to determine the risk of severe anaemia and its predictors after the initiation of ZDV-containing ART or non-ZDV- (Stavudine or Abacavir) containing ART in HIV-infected children. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction There is a risk of anaemia among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing zidovudine (ZDV) recommended in first-line regimens in the WHO guidelines. We estimated the risk of severe anaemia after initiation of a ZDV-containing regimen in HIV-infected children included in the IeDEA West African database. Methods Standardized collection of data from HIV-infected children (positive PCR<18 months or positive serology ≥18 months) followed up in HIV programmes was included in the regional IeDEA West Africa collaboration. Ten clinical centres from seven countries contributed (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Mali and Senegal) to this collection. Inclusion criteria were age <16 years and starting ART. We explored the data quality of haemoglobin documentation over time and the incidence and predictors of severe anaemia (Hb<7g/dL) per 100 child-years of follow-up over the duration of first-line antiretroviral therapy. Results As of December 2009, among the 2933 children included in the collaboration, 45% were girls, median age was five years; median CD4 cell percentage was 13%; median weight-for-age z-score was −2.7; and 1772 (60.4%) had a first-line ZDV-containing regimen. At baseline, 70% of the children with a first-line ZDV-containing regimen had a haemoglobin measure available versus 76% in those not on ZDV (p≤0.01): the prevalence of severe anaemia was 3.0% (n=38) in the ZDV group versus 10.2% (n=89) in those without (p<0. 01). Over the first-line follow-up, 58.9% of the children had ≥1 measure of haemoglobin available in those exposed to ZDV versus 60.4% of those not (p=0.45). Severe anaemia occurred in 92 children with an incidence of 2.47 per 100 child-years of follow-up in those on a ZDV-containing regimen versus 4.25 in those not (p≤0.01). Adjusted for age at ART initiation and first-line regimen, a weight-for-age z-score ≤−3 was a strong predictor associated with a 5.59 times risk of severe anaemia (p<0.01). Conclusions Severe anaemia is frequent at baseline and guides the first-line ART prescription, but its incidence seems rare among children on ART. Severe malnutrition at baseline is a strong predictor for development of severe anaemia, and interventions to address this should form an integral component of clinical care.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 09/2013; 16(1):18024. DOI:10.7448/IAS.16.1.18024 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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