Sputum eosinophil counts and eosinophil cationic protein levels in cough-variant asthma and in classic asthma, and their relationships to airway hypersensitivity or maximal airway response to methacholine.
ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to compare the degree of airway inflammation in cough-variant asthma (CVA) with that in classic asthma (CA), and to examine the relationship between airway inflammation and airway hypersensitivity or maximal airway response to methacholine in both conditions.
Sputum was induced in 41 CVA patients, in 41 methacholine PC(20)-matched CA patients, and in 20 healthy children. The sputum samples were analyzed for total and differential cell counts, and for eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP). A high-dose methacholine challenge test was performed in CVA and CA patients to determine PC(20) and maximal airway response.
Sputum eosinophil percentages and ECP levels were significantly elevated in CVA and CA vs the control, but no significant differences were found between the two asthma groups. In the two asthma groups, neither sputum parameters correlated significantly with methacholine PC(20). However, the absence of a maximal response plateau or its higher level, when present, was associated with increased eosinophil percentages and ECP levels in the CVA group.
The degree of eosinophilic inflammation may not be causally related to differences in presented asthma manifestations. The identification of a maximal response plateau and the level of this plateau in patients with CVA may provide information pertinent to airway eosinophilic inflammation.
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ABSTRACT: To characterize airway responses in a population sample, respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, and changes in FEV1 (delta FEV1) to inhaled methacholine (maximal cumulative dose of 196 mumol or maximal decrease in FEV1 of 50%) were recorded in 201 subjects. From each dose-response curve the plateau (delta FEV1 less than or equal to 5% over two or more dose steps) response, the maximal response (average of responses on the plateau or maximal delta FEV1 when no plateau was present), slope, and PD20 (dose required to cause delta FEV1 greater than 20%) were derived. The pattern of dose-response curves was a continuous change from being flat (maximal delta FEV1 less than or equal to 5%), becoming steeper with a plateau that occurred at a greater change in FEV1 as the curves were shifted more to the left, to being the steepest without a plateau response. Maximal delta FEV1 was significantly related to the PD20 (r = -0.64, p less than 0.001) and the slope (r = 0.63, p less than 0.001). A history of doctor-diagnosed asthma or wheeze in the last 12 months was related to the level of the maximal delta FEV1 and to PD20. Likelihood ratios [LR = sensitivity/(1-specificity)] for asthma or wheeze were higher for a maximal delta FEV1 of 50% plus a PD20 of 4 mumol (LR = 6.5) or 1 mumol (LR = 7) than for either alone. Subjects without reported asthma or wheeze more often had a plateau on the dose-response curve (76%) than those with a positive history (49%, p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)The American review of respiratory disease 11/1992; 146(4):895-9. · 10.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although airway eosinophilia is seen as a cardinal feature of asthma, data eosinophilia are still lacking on the proportion of the asthma group exhibiting raised airway eosinophilia. This study aimed to assess the distribution of sputum eosinophil count and its relationship with methacholine bronchial hyperresponsiveness in mild to moderate steroid-naive asthmatic people. Sputum was induced by inhalation of hypertonic saline (NaCl 4.5%) in 118 mild to moderate steroid-naive asthmatic people consecutively recruited from our outpatient clinic, and in 44 healthy people. The asthma group was selected on the basis of an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) of > or = 70% predicted, and a provocative methacholine concentration causing a fall of 20% in FEV(1) (PC20 methacholine; PC(20)M) < or = 16 mg/ml. In the asthma group, the median (range) of the percentage and the absolute values of sputum eosinophils were 4.8% (0-75) and 38 10(3)/g (0-14,191), respectively, vs 0% (0-2.3) (P < 0.001) and 0 10(3)/g (0-53) (P < 0.001) in healthy participants. Based on the 95% percentile for normal values calculated from our healthy group, 69% of the asthma group had significantly raised sputum eosinophil count (that is > 2%). In the asthma group, multiple regression analysis followed by a stepwise procedure revealed that sputum eosinophil count was significantly and inversely associated with PC(20)M accounting for 16% of its total variance (P < 0.001) while neutrophil counts positively related to PC(20)M accounting for 4% of total variance (P < 0.05). By contrast, no significant relationship was found between either eosinophil or neutrophil counts and the slope of forced vital capacity (FVC) vs FEV(1) from the methacholine challenge. We conclude that two-thirds of people in the mild to moderate asthma group had increased sputum eosinophilia, which plays a limited role in determining the degree of methacholine airway hyperresponsiveness.Allergy 10/2002; 57(10):907-12. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study the existence of bronchial disease among rhinitis patients. To evaluate the laboratory test or set of tests (ie, symptoms, exposure, and sensitization to the allergen, and the provocative dose of methacholine [Mth] causing a 20% fall in FEV(1) [PD(20)] and the maximal response plateau [MRP] to Mth) that best identifies a case of mild asthma. Cross-sectional analysis in 52 Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-monosensitized patients who were consulting a physician for perennial rhinitis. Allergy Department, Hospital Doctor Negrín, Las Palmas, Grand Canary Island, Spain. Interventions and measurements: Patients filled out a standardized asthma symptom questionnaire, and underwent sputum induction and Mth challenge in which 40% falls in FEV(1) were attained. Dose-response curves were expressed in terms of both PD(20) values and the level of the MRP. D pteronyssinus allergen exposure was assessed in dust samples from patients' beds. No difference between patients who positively responded to the questionnaire and those who did not was observed. Mth-PD(20) values were not detected in 13% of the patients reporting bronchial symptoms, and an MRP was not identified in 59% of the subjects who did not respond positively. A higher degree of allergen sensitization (ascertained from skin test results, and total and specific serum IgE levels) and higher degree of sputum eosinophilia were detected in subjects in whom an MRP had not been identified. The presence of sputum eosinophilia provided the best differentiation between those patients who presented with an MRP and those who did not. The individual perception of bronchial symptoms is highly variable among perennial allergic rhinitis patients. The lack of a maximal airway-narrowing plateau is related to the presence of sputum eosinophilia, which might be useful in the detection of patients susceptible to anti-inflammatory therapy. Prospective studies evaluating whether these patients are more likely to develop symptomatic asthma in the future and if the early anti-inflammatory treatment prevents its development are needed.Chest 12/2002; 122(5):1560-5. · 5.85 Impact Factor