Development of the first ultra-potent "capsaicinoid" agonist at transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels and its therapeutic potential

University of Florence, Florens, Tuscany, Italy
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 3.86). 03/2005; 312(2):561-70. DOI: 10.1124/jpet.104.074864
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Olvanil (N-9-Z-octadecenoyl-vanillamide) is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels that lack the pungency of capsaicin and was developed as an oral analgesic. Vanillamides are unmatched in terms of structural simplicity, straightforward synthesis, and safety compared with the more powerful TRPV1 agonists, like the structurally complex phorboid compound resiniferatoxin. We have modified the fatty acyl chain of olvanil to obtain ultra-potent analogs. The insertion of a hydroxyl group at C-12 yielded a compound named rinvanil, after ricinoleic acid, significantly less potent than olvanil (EC(50) = 6 versus 0.7 nM), but more versatile in terms of structural modifications because of the presence of an additional functional group. Acetylation and phenylacetylation of rinvanil re-established and dramatically enhanced, respectively, its potency at hTRPV1. With a two-digit picomolar EC(50) (90 pM), phenylacetylrinvanil (PhAR, IDN5890) is the most potent vanillamide ever described with potency comparable with that of resiniferatoxin (EC(50), 11 pM). Benzoyl- and phenylpropionylrinvanil were as potent and less potent than PhAR, respectively, whereas configurational inversion to ent-PhAR and cyclopropanation (but not hydrogenation or epoxidation) of the double bond were tolerated. Finally, iodination of the aromatic hydroxyl caused a dramatic switch in functional activity, generating compounds that behaved as TRPV1 antagonists rather than agonists. Since the potency of PhAR was maintained in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and, particularly, in the rat urinary bladder, this compound was investigated in an in vivo rat model of urinary incontinence and proved as effective as resiniferatoxin at reducing bladder detrusor overactivity.

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    ABSTRACT: In the search for novel chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment, capsaicin has been shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in various types of cancer cell line, including leukaemia cell lines. The capsaicin analogues, rinvanil and phenylacetylrinvanil (PhAR), share a binding affinity for vanilloid receptors and may have biological activities similar to capsaicin; however, their anticancer potential has not yet been reported. This study analyses the antineoplastic activities of rinvanil and PhAR in leukaemia versus normal cells. P388, J774 and WEHI-3 leukaemia cell lines, as well as mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells, were cultured with varying concentrations of rinvanil and PhAR. Following this, proliferation and apoptosis were determined by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and DNA ladder. Cultured leukaemia cell lines and mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation, while non-diseased cells were less sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of capsaicin, rinvanil and PhAR. Rinvanil and PhAR also induced apoptosis in leukaemia cell lines but not in bone marrow. Given the lower IC50 values for apoptosis induction in leukaemia cells compared with that of normal cells, PhAR is a promising selective anticancer agent.
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Jun 2, 2014