The essential role of the intestinal microbiota in facilitating acute inflammatory responses.
ABSTRACT The restoration of blood flow, i.e., reperfusion, is the treatment of choice to save viable tissue following acute ischemia of a vascular territory. Nevertheless, reperfusion can be accompanied by significant inflammatory events that limit the beneficial effects of blood flow restoration. To evaluate the potential role of the intestinal microbiota in facilitating the development of tissue injury and systemic inflammation, germ-free and conventional mice were compared in their ability to respond to ischemia and reperfusion injury. In conventional mice, there was marked local (intestine) and remote (lung) edema formation, neutrophil influx, hemorrhage, and production of TNF-alpha, KC, MIP-2, and MCP-1. Moreover, there was an increase in the concentration of serum TNF-alpha and 100% lethality. In germ-free mice, there was no local, remote, or systemic inflammatory response or lethality after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion and, in contrast to conventional mice, germ-free animals produced greater amounts of IL-10. Similar results were obtained after administration of LPS, i.e., little production of TNF-alpha or lethality and production of IL-10 after LPS in germ-free mice. Blockade of IL-10 with Abs induced marked inflammation and lethality in germ-free mice after ischemia and reperfusion or LPS administration, demonstrating that the ability of these mice to produce IL-10 was largely responsible for their "no inflammation" phenotype. This was consistent with the prevention of reperfusion-associated injury by the exogenous administration of IL-10 to conventional mice. Thus, the lack of intestinal microbiota is accompanied by a state of active IL-10-mediated inflammatory hyporesponsiveness.
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ABSTRACT: Gut commensal bacteria play important roles in the development and homeostasis of intestinal immunity. However, the role of gut commensals in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is unclear. To determine the roles of gut commensal bacteria in intestinal IR injury, we depleted gut microbiota with a broad-spectrum antibiotic cocktail and performed mesenteric I/R (M I/R). First, we confirmed that antibiotic treatment completely depleted gut commensal bacteria and diminished the size of secondary lymphoid tissues such as the Peyer's patches. We next found that antibiotic treatment attenuated intestinal injury following M I/R. Depletion of gut commensal bacteria reduced the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 in the intestine. Both are well-known receptors for gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Decreased expression of TLR2 and TLR4 led to the reduction of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2. Intestinal I/R injury is initiated when natural antibodies recognize neo-antigens that are revealed on ischemic cells and activate the complement pathway. Thus we evaluated complement and immunoglobulin (Ig) deposition in the damaged intestine and found that antibiotic treatment decreased the deposition of both C3 and IgM. Interestingly, we also found that the deposition of IgA also increased in the intestine following M I/R compared with control mice and that antibiotic treatment decreased the deposition of IgA in the damaged intestine. These results suggest that depletion of gut commensal bacteria decreases B cells, Igs, and TLR expression in the intestine, inhibits complement activation, and attenuates intestinal inflammation and injury following M I/R.AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 09/2011; 301(6):G1020-30. · 3.43 Impact Factor
Article: Transient TLR activation restores inflammatory response and ability to control pulmonary bacterial infection in germfree mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mammals are colonized by an astronomical number of commensal microorganisms on their environmental exposed surfaces. These symbiotic species build up a complex community that aids their hosts in several physiological activities. We have shown that lack of intestinal microbiota is accompanied by a state of active IL-10-mediated inflammatory hyporesponsiveness. The present study investigated whether the germfree state and its hyporesponsive phenotype alter host resistance to an infectious bacterial insult. Experiments performed in germfree mice infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that these animals are drastically susceptible to bacterial infection in an IL-10-dependent manner. In germfree mice, IL-10 restrains proinflammatory mediator production and neutrophil recruitment and favors pathogen growth and dissemination. Germfree mice were resistant to LPS treatment. However, priming of these animals with several TLR agonists recovered their inflammatory responsiveness to sterile injury. LPS pretreatment also rendered germfree mice resistant to pulmonary K. pneumoniae infection, abrogated IL-10 production, and restored TNF-α and CXCL1 production and neutrophil mobilization into lungs of infected germfree mice. This effective inflammatory response mounted by LPS-treated germfree mice resulted in bacterial clearance and enhanced survival upon infection. Therefore, host colonization by indigenous microbiota alters the way the host reacts to environmental infectious stimuli, probably through activation of TLR-dependent pathways. Symbiotic gut colonization enables proper inflammatory response to harmful insults to the host, and increases resilience of the entire mammal-microbiota consortium to environmental pressures.The Journal of Immunology 12/2011; 188(3):1411-20. · 5.79 Impact Factor
Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 09/2012; · 3.40 Impact Factor