A global expression-based analysis of the consequences of the t(4;14) translocation in myeloma
ABSTRACT Our purpose in this report was to define genes and pathways dysregulated as a consequence of the t(4;14) in myeloma, and to gain insight into the downstream functional effects that may explain the different prognosis of this subgroup.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) overexpression, the presence of immunoglobulin heavy chain-multiple myeloma SET domain (IgH-MMSET) fusion products and the identification of t(4;14) breakpoints were determined in a series of myeloma cases. Differentially expressed genes were identified between cases with (n = 5) and without (n = 24) a t(4;14) by using global gene expression analysis.
Cases with a t(4;14) have a distinct expression pattern compared with other cases of myeloma. A total of 127 genes were identified as being differentially expressed including MMSET and cyclin D2, which have been previously reported as being associated with this translocation. Other important functional classes of genes include cell signaling, apoptosis and related genes, oncogenes, chromatin structure, and DNA repair genes. Interestingly, 25% of myeloma cases lacking evidence of this translocation had up-regulation of the MMSET transcript to the same level as cases with a translocation.
t(4;14) cases form a distinct subgroup of myeloma cases with a unique gene signature that may account for their poor prognosis. A number of non-t(4;14) cases also express MMSET consistent with this gene playing a role in myeloma pathogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: The histone methyltransferase WHSC1 (also known as MMSET) is overexpressed in multiple myeloma (MM) as a result of the t(4;14) chromosomal translocation and in a broad variety of other cancers by unclear mechanisms. Overexpression of WHSC1 did not transform wild-type or tumor-prone primary hematopoietic cells. We found that ACA11, an orphan box H/ACA class small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) encoded within an intron of WHSC1, was highly expressed in t(4;14)-positive MM and other cancers. ACA11 localized to nucleoli and bound what we believe to be a novel small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complex composed of several proteins involved in postsplicing intron complexes. RNA targets of this uncharacterized snRNP included snoRNA intermediates hosted within ribosomal protein (RP) genes, and an RP gene signature was strongly associated with t(4;14) in patients with MM. Expression of ACA11 was sufficient to downregulate RP genes and other snoRNAs implicated in the control of oxidative stress. ACA11 suppressed oxidative stress, afforded resistance to chemotherapy, and increased the proliferation of MM cells, demonstrating that ACA11 is a critical target of the t(4;14) translocation in MM and suggesting an oncogenic role in other cancers as well.The Journal of clinical investigation 07/2012; 122(8):2793-806. DOI:10.1172/JCI63051 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by recurrent chromosomal translocations. MMSET, identified by its fusion to the IgH locus in t(4;14) MM, is universally overexpressed in t(4;14) MM. In order to identify cell surface biomarkers associated with t(4;14) MM for small molecule or antibody based therapies, we knocked down MMSET expression with shRNA and generated a cell line pair from KMS11, a t(4;14) MM cell line. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to identify plasma membrane proteins associated with MMSET overexpression. Using this approach, 50 cell surface proteins were identified as differentially expressed between KMS11 and KMS11/shMMSET. Western blot and flow cytometry analysis indicated SLAMF7 was over-expressed in t(4;14) MM cell lines and down-regulated by MMSET shRNAs. SLAMF7 expression was also confirmed in primary t(4;14) MM samples by flow cytometry analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR and ChIP analysis indicated MMSET might regulate the transcription level of SLAMF7 and be an important functional element for SLAMF7 promoter activity. Furthermore, SLAMF7 shRNA could induce G1 arrest or apoptosis and reduce clonogenetic capacity in t(4;14) MM cells. Overall, these results illustrated SLAMF7 might be a novel cell surface protein associated with t(4;14) MM. It is potential to develop t(4;14) MM targeted therapy by SLAMF7 antibody mediated drug delivery.Oncotarget 07/2013; 4(7):1008-18. · 6.63 Impact Factor