A global expression-based analysis of the consequences of the t(4;14) translocation in myeloma

Academic Unit of Haematology and Oncology, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
Clinical Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.72). 10/2004; 10(17):5692-701. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0467
Source: PubMed


Our purpose in this report was to define genes and pathways dysregulated as a consequence of the t(4;14) in myeloma, and to gain insight into the downstream functional effects that may explain the different prognosis of this subgroup.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) overexpression, the presence of immunoglobulin heavy chain-multiple myeloma SET domain (IgH-MMSET) fusion products and the identification of t(4;14) breakpoints were determined in a series of myeloma cases. Differentially expressed genes were identified between cases with (n = 5) and without (n = 24) a t(4;14) by using global gene expression analysis.
Cases with a t(4;14) have a distinct expression pattern compared with other cases of myeloma. A total of 127 genes were identified as being differentially expressed including MMSET and cyclin D2, which have been previously reported as being associated with this translocation. Other important functional classes of genes include cell signaling, apoptosis and related genes, oncogenes, chromatin structure, and DNA repair genes. Interestingly, 25% of myeloma cases lacking evidence of this translocation had up-regulation of the MMSET transcript to the same level as cases with a translocation.
t(4;14) cases form a distinct subgroup of myeloma cases with a unique gene signature that may account for their poor prognosis. A number of non-t(4;14) cases also express MMSET consistent with this gene playing a role in myeloma pathogenesis.

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    • "The HMCLs carrying t(4;14) are characterized by the overexpression of genes involved in various biological processes, such as transcription regulation (TWIST1 and ZBTB38), protein transport, repair and metabolism (TRAM1, MSRB2, RNF103), and cell cycle regulation (CDKN2A/p16). Notably, the t(4,14) signature in HMCLs is different from that found by us in a panel of 19 primary tumors (Agnelli et al., 2005; and our unpublished observations ) and that recently reported by another group (Dring et al., 2004); this finding further support the view that HMCLs are quite distinct biological entities, and suggest that the HMCL-based in vitro experimental model should be critically reeval- uated. The genome-wide DNA profiling analysis of 17 HMCLs revealed remarkable genomic instability involving large DNA regions. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the patterns of genetic lesions in a panel of 23 human multiple myeloma cell lines (HMCLs), we made a genomic integrative analysis involving FISH, and both gene expression and genome-wide profiling approaches. The expression profiles of the genes targeted by the main IGH translocations showed that the WHSC1/MMSET gene involved in t(4;14)(p16;q32) was expressed at different levels in all of the HMCLs, and that the expression of the MAF gene was not restricted to the HMCLs carrying t(14;16)(q32;q23). Supervised analyses identified a limited number of genes specifically associated with t(4;14) and involved in different biological processes. The signature related to MAF/MAFB expression included the known MAF target genes CCND2 and ITGB7, as well as genes controlling cell shape and cell adhesion. Genome-wide DNA profiling allowed the identification of a gain on chromosome arm 1q in 88% of the analyzed cell lines, together with recurrent gains on 8q, 18q, 7q, and 20q; the most frequent deletions affected 1p, 13q, 17p, and 14q; and almost all of the cell lines presented LOH on chromosome 13. Two hundred and twenty-two genes were found to be simultaneously overexpressed and amplified in our panel, including the BCL2 locus at 18q21.33. Our data further support the evidence of the genomic complexity of multiple myeloma and reinforce the role of an integrated genomic approach in improving our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease. This article contains Supplementary Material available at
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is the most common form of plasma cell dyscrasia, characterized by a marked heterogeneity of genetic lesions and clinical course. It may develop from a premalignant condition (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, MGUS) or progress from intramedullary to extramedullary forms (plasma cell leukemia, PCL). To provide insights into the molecular characterization of plasma cell dyscrasias and to investigate the contribution of specific genetic lesions to the biological and clinical heterogeneity of MM, we analysed the gene expression profiles of plasma cells isolated from seven MGUS, 39 MM and six PCL patients by means of DNA microarrays. MMs resulted highly heterogeneous at transcriptional level, whereas the differential expression of genes mainly involved in DNA metabolism and proliferation distinguished MGUS from PCLs and the majority of MM cases. The clustering of MM patients was mainly driven by the presence of the most recurrent translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus. Distinct gene expression patterns have been found to be associated with different lesions: the overexpression of CCND2 and genes involved in cell adhesion pathways was observed in cases with deregulated MAF and MAFB, whereas genes upregulated in cases with the t(4;14) showed apoptosis-related functions. The peculiar finding in patients with the t(11;14) was the downregulation of the alpha-subunit of the IL-6 receptor. In addition, we identified a set of cancer germline antigens specifically expressed in a subgroup of MM patients characterized by an aggressive clinical evolution, a finding that could have implications for patient classification and immunotherapy.
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