Article

Adolescent impulsivity predicts adult dominance attainment in male vervet monkeys.

Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA.
American Journal of Primatology (Impact Factor: 2.14). 10/2004; 64(1):1-17. DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20057
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Adolescence is characterized by behavioral and physiological changes that prepare individuals for the transition to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of behavioral, morphological, neurobiological, and developmental characteristics of adolescent male vervets in predicting later dominance attainment. Thirty-six adolescent male vervets were tested for social impulsivity by means of the Intruder Challenge test while they were still living in their natal groups. Body weight and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine were measured before they were introduced into new matrilineal breeding groups at age 5. Stable adult dominance rank was determined at age 6, 1 year following introduction. The results indicated that body weight, adolescent impulsivity, and levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in CSF predicted adult dominance attainment. As expected, males that were above average in body weight prior to introduction were significantly more likely to become dominant. Males that were high in impulsivity as adolescents, and low in 5-HIAA prior to introduction were more likely to achieve stable alpha male status 1 year following introduction. The combination of these three factors resulted in correct prediction of rank attainment for 92% (33/36) of the males. Two other factors-maternal dominance rank and a measure of social anxiety from the Intruder Challenge test-were not related to adult dominance attainment in this sample. These results support the idea that there are benefits of a high-risk, high-gain strategy is beneficial for adolescent and young adult male vervets. They also demonstrate that adolescent impulsivity is age-limited. Males that achieved high rank moderated their behavior as adults, and no longer scored high in impulsivity relative to their age peers.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
101 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The purpose of this translational review (i.e. moving from basic primate research toward possible human applications) was to summarize non-human primate literature on anxiety to inform the development of future assessments of anxiety in non-verbal individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Systematic searches of databases identified 67 studies that met inclusion criteria. Each study was analysed and summarised in terms of (a) strategies used to evoke anxiety, (b) non-verbal behavioural indicators of anxiety and (c) physiological indicators of anxiety. Results: Eighteen strategies were used to evoke anxiety, 48 non-verbal behavioural indicators and 17 physiological indicators of anxiety were measured. Conclusions: A number of the strategies used with non-human primates, if modified carefully, could be considered in the ongoing effort to study anxiety in individuals with ASD. Potential applications to the assessment of anxiety in humans with ASD are discussed.
    Developmental Neurorehabilitation 07/2014; · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Addictions are often characterized as forms of impulsive behavior. That said, it is often noted that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, spanning several psychological domains. This review describes the relationship between varieties of impulsivity and addiction-related behaviors, the nature of the causal relationship between the two, and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that promote impulsive behaviors. We conclude that the available data strongly support the notion that impulsivity is both a risk factor for, and a consequence of, drug and alcohol consumption. While the evidence indicating that subtypes of impulsive behavior are uniquely informative—either biologically or with respect to their relationships to addictions—is convincing, multiple lines of study link distinct subtypes of impulsivity to low dopamine D2 receptor function and perturbed serotonergic transmission, revealing shared mechanisms between the subtypes. Therefore, a common biological framework involving monoaminergic transmitters in key frontostriatal circuits may link multiple forms of impulsivity to drug self-administration and addiction-related behaviors. Further dissection of these relationships is needed before the next phase of genetic and genomic discovery will be able to reveal the biological sources of the vulnerability for addiction indexed by impulsivity.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 03/2014; · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the cumulative effects of cathinone on behavioural alterations in single-caged vervet monkeys. Fourteen adult vervets were divided into tests (12 animals) and controls (2 animals), and exposed to escalating doses of cathinone at alternate days of each week for 4 months in presence and absence of cage enrichment. One month of pre-treatment phase served to establish baseline values. Composite behavioural scores of aggression, anxiety, abnormal responses, withdrawal and appetite loss were done. A series of repeated measures analysis of variances were conducted to examine the extent to which cathinone administration was associated with patterns of changes in behavioural data. Results indicate a dose-dependent effect of cathinone on increases of aggression, anxiety, abnormal responses, withdrawal, and appetite loss. The findings demonstrate that at high doses and long-term exposure, cathinone causes behavioural alterations probably via changes in presynaptic striatal dopamine system.
    Metabolic Brain Disease 10/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
61 Downloads
Available from
Jun 10, 2014