Hue, S. et al. A direct role for NKG2D/MICA interaction in villous atrophy during celiac disease. Immunity 21, 367-377
ABSTRACT MICA molecules interact with the NKG2D-activating receptor on human NK and CD8 T cells. We investigated the participation of the MICA/NKG2D pathway in the destruction of intestinal epithelium by intraepithelial T lymphocytes (IEL) in Celiac disease and its premalignant complication, refractory sprue. We show that MICA is strongly expressed at epithelial cell surface in patients with active disease and is induced by gliadin or its p31-49 derived peptide upon in vitro challenge, an effect relayed by IL-15. This triggers direct activation and costimulation of IEL through engagement of NKG2D, leading to an innate-like cytotoxicity toward epithelial targets and enhanced TCR-dependent CD8 T cell-mediated adaptive response. Villous atrophy in Celiac disease might thus be ascribed to an IEL-mediated damage to enterocytes involving NKG2D/MICA interaction after gliadin-induced expression of MICA on gut epithelium. This supports a key role for MIC/NKG2D in the activation of intraepithelial immunity in response to danger.
- SourceAvailable from: Catherine Farnarier
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- "Soluble MIC concentrations were measured in the plasma using a sandwich enzymelinked immunoabsorbent assay as previously described . The detection threshold of recombinant soluble MICA protein , used as standard in each experiment, was 0.1 ng/mL and plasma levels higher than 0.3 ng/mL were considered as positive. "
ABSTRACT: The major histocompatibility complex class I related chain (MIC) is a stress-inducible protein modulating the function of immune natural killer (NK) cells, a major leukocyte subset involved in proper trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling. Aim of the study was to evaluate whether upregulation of soluble MIC (sMIC) may reflect immune disorders associated to vascular pregnancy diseases (VPD). sMIC was more frequently detected in the plasma of women with a diagnostic of VPD (32%) than in normal term-matched pregnancies (1.6%, P < 0.0001), with highest prevalence in intrauterine fetal death (IUDF, 44%) and vascular intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, 39%). sMIC levels were higher in preeclampsia (PE) than in IUFD (P < 0.01) and vascular IUGR (P < 0.05). sMIC detection was associated with bilateral early diastolic uterine notches (P = 0.037), thrombocytopenia (P = 0.03), and high proteinuria (P = 0.03) in PE and with the vascular etiology of IUGR (P = 0.0038). Incubation of sMIC-positive PE plasma resulted in downregulation of NKG2D expression and NK cell-mediated IFN-γ production in vitro. Our work thus suggests that detection of sMIC molecule in maternal plasma may constitute a hallmark of altered maternal immune functions that contributes to vascular disorders that complicate pregnancy, notably by impairing NK-cell mediated production of IFN-γ, an essential cytokine favoring vascular modeling.BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:653161. DOI:10.1155/2014/653161 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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- "T cells (Molberg et al. 1998; van de Wal et al. 1998a, b; Vader et al. 2002; Arentz- Hansen et al. 2000, 2002; Tollefsen et al. 2006; Camarca et al. 2009). It has also been shown that innate immune response to gliadin peptides from Pro/Gln poor regions of gliadin can lead to epithelial cell death (Maiuri et al. 2003; Meresse et al. 2004; Hue et al. 2004). Gliadin-derived peptides are thus capable of inducing adverse immune reactions in genetically susceptible individuals. "
ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory affliction of the small bowel caused by an immunological hypersensitivity to ingested wheat antigens affecting almost 1 % of the population. The gliadin fraction of wheat has been shown to contain the pathogenic antigens which react with antibodies and T cells. However, there is only limited knowledge regarding the precise nature of the wheat antigens recognized by IgA antibodies from CD patients and diagnostic tests based on the gliadin fraction have been demonstrated to give frequently false positive results. The aim of this study was the characterization of wheat antigens specifically recognized by IgA antibodies of CD patients. We developed a combined biochemical, biophysical, and immunological approach for the identification of celiac disease-specific wheat antigens. It is based on sub-fractionation of the wheat gliadin fraction using two ion exchange chromatography steps, the localization of CD-specific antigens by immunoblotting with IgA antibodies from CD patients, subsequent digestion followed by electro spray ionization-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and N-terminal sequencing by Edman degradation. Through the sub-fractionation procedure it was possible to separate CD-specific IgA-reactive wheat antigens from other wheat antigens which were also recognized by IgA antibodies of individuals without CD or by CD patients on gluten-free diet. Analysis by LC-ESI-MS/MS and N-terminal sequencing of the sub-fractions and the proteins specifically recognized by CD patients identified certain γ-gliadins with molecular mass of 37,000 and 45,000 as CD-specific wheat antigens. The CD-specific γ-gliadins with the molecular mass of 37,000 and 45,000 should be useful to study pathomechanisms of the disease and to improve the specificity of diagnostic tests for CD.Amino Acids 07/2013; 45(4). DOI:10.1007/s00726-013-1537-6 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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- "The interaction of NK receptors with their ligands leads to the death of intestinal epithelial cells and releases IFN-γ and cytolytic proteins (perforin, granzymes, etc.), resulting in observable tissue damage. IL-15 has been shown to upregulate both CD94/NKG2C and NKG2D NK receptors in IELs of active patients, boosting their ability to lyse enterocytes  . "
ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy, triggered by dietary wheat gluten and similar proteins of barley and rye in genetically susceptible individuals. The etiology of this disorder is complex, involving both environmental and genetic factors. The major genetic risk factor for CD is represented by HLA-DQ genes, which account for approximately 40% of the genetic risk; however, only a small percentage of carriers develop the disease. Gluten is the main environmental factor responsible for the signs and symptoms of the disease, but exposure to gluten does not fully explain the manifestation of CD. Epidemiological and clinical data suggest that environmental factors other than gluten might play a role in disease development, including early feeding practices (e.g., breast milk versus formula and duration of breastfeeding), infections, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition. Herein, we review what is known about the influence of dietary factors, exposure to infectious agents, and intestinal microbiota composition, particularly in early life, on the risk of developing CD, as well as the possible dietary strategies to induce or increase gluten tolerance.Clinical and Developmental Immunology 09/2012; 2012:654143. DOI:10.1155/2012/654143 · 2.93 Impact Factor