Prognostic factors in survival of patients with stage Ta and T1 bladder urothelial tumors: the role of G1-S modulators (p53, p21Waf1, p27Kip1, cyclin D1, and cyclin D3), proliferation index, and clinicopathologic parameters.

Department of Pathology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba, Spain.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology (Impact Factor: 3.01). 10/2004; 122(3):444-52. DOI: 10.1309/LTFU-3UUM-BY09-5HUM
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We studied 159 cases of superficial (stage Ta or T1) bladder tumors to determine the significance on survival of a subset of regulators of transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle (p53, p21Waf1, p27Kip1, cyclin D1, cyclin D3) and tumor proliferation (Ki-67 [MIB-1]). Clinical findings (patient age, sex, tumor size, grade, stage [Ta or T1]) were included in the analysis. Univariate analysis revealed association of tumor size (P = .0353), grade in stage Ta tumors (P = .0074), cyclin D1 expression (P = .0182), and Ki-67 index (P = .0033) with disease-free survival and of tumor size (P = .0005), stage (P = .0494), cyclin D3 expression (P = .0105), and Ki-67 index (P = .0272) with overall survival. Cox multivariate analysis revealed cyclin D1 expression and high proliferation index (disease-free) and tumor size, cyclin D3 expression, and high proliferation index (overall survival) as independent predictors. Results suggest that alterations of the progression from the G1 to S phase of the cell cycle are common in papillary urothelial bladder tumors. High tumor proliferation, expression of cyclins D1 and D3, and tumor size at diagnosis might be relevant predictors of survival in patients with stage Ta and T1 bladder urothelial tumors.

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    ABSTRACT: High-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (Non-MIBC) has a high risk of stage progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and could be managed either conservatively by transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) or more aggressively by radical cystectomy. The selection of patients who may benefit from early radical intervention is a challenge. To define useful prognostic markers for progression, we analyzed clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical expression patterns of E2F1, p27, survivin, p53, EZH2, IMP3, TSC1/hamartin, fatty acid synthase, androgen receptor, 14-3-3σ, MAGEA4, and NY-ESO-1 on 118 cases of high-grade Non-MIBC. During the mean follow-up period of 64.3 months, progression occurred in 18 patients (15.3%). Histologically, large amount of invasive component (> 50%) was noted in 35 cases (29.7%) and was strongly associated with progression. Among the 12 biomarkers, high expressions of E2F1 and nuclear p27 were noted in 46 cases (40.0%) and 14 cases (12.7%), respectively, and were associated with frequent progression. Using multivariate analysis, the proportion of invasive component and high E2F1 expression were independent prognostic factors for the prediction of progression. Our results indicated that large amount of invasive carcinoma component and high expressions of p27 and E2F1 were predictive markers for progression in Non-MIBC. Therefore, we suggest that these parameters, especially proportion of invasive carcinoma component and E2F1 expression, should be evaluated during pathologic examination and considered during selection of the appropriate management strategy for high grade Non-MIBC patients.

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