Evaluation of the rapid diagnostic test OptiMAL for diagnosis of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax

Cayetano Heredia University, Institute of Tropical Medecine Alexander von Humboldt, Lima, Peru.
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 1.1). 05/2004; 8(2):151-5. DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702004000200005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the rapid diagnostic test OptiMAL for diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria.
We included all the patients who sought medical attention in the San Martin Pangoa Hospital, Junin, an area endemic for vivax malaria in Peru, between October and December 1998, who had fever during the previous 72 hours and who were older than 12 months. The gold standard for diagnosis was thick blood film microscopy. We determined the parasitemia rate for each of the positive slides. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the test.
We included 72 patients; 39 of them were positive for P. vivax by microscopic examination. The sensitivity of the Optimal test was 92.3%, the specificity 100%, the positive predictive value 100% and the negative predictive value 91.6%. The accuracy of the test was 95.8%. The sensitivity of the OptiMAL test progressively decreased when parasitemia was lower than 1,000 parasites/microliter.
the OptiMAL test has a high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of P. vivax malaria. However, its sensitivity decreased when parasitemia levels were lower. It is a very simple technique, which makes it a good alternative for malaria diagnosis in remote places, although its elevated cost is still a problem.

Download full-text


Available from: Daniel Mendoza, Apr 30, 2015
  • Source
    • "Although rapid diagnostic tests for malaria have been extensively field tested in Africa, little research has focused on their effectiveness in Latin America. However , recent trials of a rapid diagnostic test in Mexico and Peru have demonstrated sufficient sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of P. vivax in rural communities (Gonzalez- Ceron et al., 2005; Soto Tarazona et al., 2004). Whilst microscopy remains the gold standard for malaria diagnosis, rapid tests can provide a quick, cheap and simple alternative in communities without direct access to a primary healthcare facility and their use requires minimal training. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inequitable access to healthcare has a profound impact on the health of marginalised groups that typically suffer an excess burden of infectious disease morbidity and mortality. The Yanomami are traditionally semi-nomadic people living in widely dispersed communities in Amazonian Venezuela and Brazil. Only communities living in the vicinity of a health post have relatively constant access to healthcare. To monitor the improvement in the development of Yanomami healthcare a cross-sectional survey of 183 individuals was conducted to investigate malaria and anaemia prevalence in communities with constant and intermittent access to healthcare. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Malaria was diagnosed by microscopy and haemoglobin concentration by HemoCue. Prevalence of malaria, anaemia, splenomegaly, fever and diarrhoea were all significantly higher in communities with intermittent access to healthcare (anaemia 80.8% vs. 53.6%, P<0.001; malaria 18.2% vs. 6.0%, P=0.013; splenomegaly 85.4% vs.12.5%, P<0.001; fever 50.5% vs. 28.6%, P=0.003; diarrhoea 30.3% vs.10.7% P=0.001). Haemoglobin level (10.0 g/dl vs. 11.5 g/dl) was significantly associated with access to healthcare when controlling for age, sex, malaria and splenomegaly (P=0.01). These findings indicate a heavy burden of anaemia in both areas and the need for interventions against anaemia and malaria, along with more frequent medical visits to remote areas.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 08/2008; 102(7):645-52. DOI:10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.02.021 · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "It appeared that neither parasitaemia nor symptoms of malaria were considered before antimalarials were given to the patients as only 7% of the patients were febrile at presentation and 60% did not have blood smears for malaria testing yet 48% had antimalarials prescribed. Despite the fact that infections are an accepted cause of painful episodes in SCD, it is necessary to confirm malaria as the precipitating factor with a microscopic examination of blood smears which is the 'gold standard' for malaria diagnosis (Fernando, Karunaweera & Fernando, 2004; Soto et al., 2004) and fortunately still affordable in a developing economy. It also appeared that not much reliance is placed on the result of the blood smear as 35% of those with a negative smear still had antimalarials. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pain is a common mode of manifestation of sickle cell disease (SCD) but there is limited information on pain management in this disorder. This study examines the use of opioids and non-opioid analgesia in the management of painful crisis in adult SCD patients; the routine use of antimalarials and antibiotics as adjunct therapy was also examined. A total of 87% of the patients had had a form of analgesics before presentation, 20% of which had parenteral analgesia. Ten per cent had not used any form of medication while another 10% used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. When asked, 59% of the patients desired oral non-opioid analgesics while 31% were not concerned about the type of analgesic given. Only 8% requested opioids. Hospital admission was not necessary in 65% of the patients; they were observed in the day-care unit and allowed home within 24 h. Sixty per cent did not have a test for malaria; 66% of those who had the test performed were negative, 35% of those whose thick film for malaria was negative had antimalarials prescribed. Only five patients (7%) were febrile at presentation. Thirty-four per cent had antibiotics prescribed, a third of these parenterally. Thirty-nine per cent had no fever but received antibiotics.
    Clinical & Laboratory Haematology 09/2005; 27(4):221-3. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2257.2005.00705.x · 1.30 Impact Factor
  • Article: Biomédica
Show more