This study was undertaken to determine whether a change in the frequency or distribution of the causative pathogens in persistent acute otitis media (AOM) and AOM treatment failure (AOMTF) occurred after publication of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention AOM treatment guidelines advocating high dose amoxicillin in 1998 and the universal use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2000.
This was a 9-year prospective study in a suburban, community-based private practice. To identify bacterial isolate(s), 551 children with AOM who had not responded after 1 or 2 empiric antimicrobial treatment courses (termed persistent AOM) and those who were failures after 48 h on treatment (AOMTF) underwent tympanocentesis. Three periods were compared: (1) 1995-1997 when all enrolled received standard dose amoxicillin (40-50 mg/kg/day divided 3 times daily) as the initial empiric treatment; (2) 1998-2000 when all received high dose amoxicillin (80-100 mg/kg/day divided twice daily); and (3) 2001-2003 when high dose amoxicillin and pneumococcal conjugate vaccinations were used.
Persistent AOM or AOMTF for which tympanocentesis was performed occurred in 195 (16.2%) of 1,207, 204 (16.1%) of 1,278 and 152 (12.3%) of 1,232 AOM visits for 1995-1997, 1998-2000 and 2001-2003, respectively; the 24% decline in 2001-2003 in persistent AOM and AOMTF was significant (P = 0.007). Middle ear aspirates grew Streptococcus pneumoniae (48, 44 and 31%) and Haemophilus influenzae (38, 43 and 57%) for time periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was a significant decline in S. pneumoniae (P = 0.017) and increase in H. influenzae (P = 0.012) isolations and of H. influenzae that were beta-lactamase-producing (P = 0.04) among middle ear fluid isolates. Also there was a trend for an increased proportion of S. pneumoniae in 2001-2003 that were penicillin-susceptible (P = 0.17).
In our experience, persistent AOM and AOMTF has decreased in frequency since the introduction of high dose amoxicillin therapy and pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. It appears that H. influenzae has become the predominant pathogen of persistent AOM and AOMTF since universal immunization with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Fewer S. pneumoniae AOM isolates are penicillin-resistant and more H. influenzae are beta-lactamase-producing.
"This was a tympanocentesis-based, multi-center, cross-sectional study conducted within a routine clinical setting in several regions of Thailand: 2 centers in Bangkok, one in Hatyai in southern Thailand and one in Chiang Mai in northern Thailand. Target enrollment was at least 100 patients over a year, based on the assumption that in the context of high antibiotic use, 40% of samples would be culture positive [3,4,20]. The study included children 3 to 59 months of age visiting Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) clinics for AOM, and from whom a middle ear fluid (MEF) sample was available either by tympanocentesis or careful sampling of spontaneous otorrhea which occurred less than 24 hours prior to the visit. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) are considered major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM) worldwide, but data from Asia on primary causes of AOM are limited. This tympanocentesis-based, multi-center, cross-sectional study assessed bacterial etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of AOM in Thailand.
Children 3 to 59 months presenting with AOM (< 72 hours of onset) who had not received prescribed antibiotics, or subjects who received prescribed antibiotics but remained symptomatic after 48–72 hours (treatment failures), were eligible. Study visits were conducted from April 2008 to August 2009. Bacteria were identified from middle ear fluid collected by tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling (< 20% of cases). S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae serotypes were determined and antimicrobial resistance was also assessed.
Of the 123 enrolled children, 112 were included in analysis and 48% of the 118 samples were positive for S. pneumoniae (23% (27/118)), H. influenzae (18% (21/118)), Moraxella catarrhalis (6% (7/118)) or Streptococcus pyogenes (3% (4/118)). The most common pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (26%) and 14 (22%). The majority of H. influenzae isolates were encapsulated (18/21), with 13 type b (Hib) representing 62% of all H. influenzae isolate or 11% of all samples (13/118), and there were only 3 non-typeable isolates. Despite high antibiotic resistance, amoxicillin/clavulanate susceptibility was high. No pneumococcal vaccine use was reported.
S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, both frequently antibiotic resistant, were leading causes of bacterial AOM and there was an unexpectedly high burden of Hib in this population unvaccinated by any Hib conjugate vaccine. Conjugate vaccines effective against pneumococcus and H. influenzae could potentially reduce the burden of AOM in this population.
"Acute otitis media (AOM) is the commonest paediatric bacterial infection, affecting up to 75% of children at some time before age 5 years . Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, in particular the non-typable strains (NTHi), are responsible for up to 80% of bacterial AOM [2–4]. AOM is among the primary reasons for antibiotic prescriptions in paediatric outpatients [5–8]; however, many countries recommend a ‘wait and watch’ approach as it has been found that symptomatic treatment without antibiotics can be safely used in most AOM cases [9–11]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY We conducted an epidemiological, observational cohort study to determine the incidence and complications of acute otitis media (AOM) in children aged <6 years. Data on physician-diagnosed AOM were collected from retrospective review of medical charts for the year preceding enrolment and then prospectively in the year following enrolment. The study included 5776 children in Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. AOM incidence was 256/1000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 243-270] in the prospective study period. Incidence was lowest in Italy (195, 95% CI 171-222) and highest in Spain (328, 95% CI 296-363). Complications were documented in <1% of episodes. Spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation was documented in 7% of episodes. Both retrospective and prospective study results were similar and show the high incidence during childhood in these five European countries. Differences by country may reflect true differences and differences in social structure and diagnostic procedures.
Epidemiology and Infection 12/2013; 142(8):1-11. DOI:10.1017/S0950268813002744 · 2.54 Impact Factor
"It is generally accepted that dysfunction or underdevelopment of the eustachain tube, prior upper respiratory viral infection and subsequent bacterial infection, allergies, parental smoking, and daycare classrooms with more than six students are associated with the development of OME [2-4]. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are commonly detected in the middle ear fluids of patients with OME; however, 40%-60% of OME cases have culture-negative results . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9 recognizes unmethylated cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) motifs in bacteria. Therefore, the expression of TLR-9 may differ according to the results of bacterial culture, and thus a change in proinflammatory cytokine induction can also be expected. The authors aimed to assess the differences and relationships between the expression of TLR-9, cytokines, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in otitis media with effusion (OME) based on bacterial culture results.
Sixty-eight patients with OME were divided into culture-positive and culture-negative groups based on middle ear culture results. mRNA expression of TLR-9, NOS, and cytokines was measured and analyzed.
Bacteria were detected in 38.2% of patients, and the distribution was as follows: coagulase negative Staphylococcus (10.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (8.8%), Streptococcus pneumonia (5.9%), and Bacillus spp. and Haemophilus influenza combined (2.9%). There were no significant differences in epidemiologic characteristics according to the culture results. Down-regulation of TLR-9 was observed in the culture-positive group (P=0.019). Cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12 (r=-0.582), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (r=-0.569), interferon (IFN)-γ (r=-0.442), IL-6 (r=-0.395) and inducible NOS (r=-0.256) tended to decrease with the detection of bacteria.
The expression of TLR-9 significantly decreased in OME with confirmed bacterial pathogens. IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-β, IL-6 expression tended to decrease with the detection of bacteria. The presence of bacterial pathogens in OME may be related to abnormalities in the innate immune system.
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