Salmonella live vaccine strains harbouring mutations in htrA, a stress protein gene, display increased susceptibility to oxidative stress in vitro. This is believed to be connected to their reduced virulence, perhaps due to impaired survival inside phagocytes, although this has never been formally proven. We report that the in vitro phenotype of increased susceptibility to oxidative stress of Salmonella typhimurium htrA mutants newly prepared by transduction is rapidly lost on subculture, with the mutants becoming as resistant as the parent for reasons that remain unclear. However, despite this change, htrA mutants are still attenuated in normal mice. In contrast, they were found to be lethal for gene targeted gp91phox-/- mice deficient in NADPH oxidase, as was a S. typhimurium SPI-2 mutant known to be virulent in gp9lphox-/- mice. Infection with htrA mutants caused little damage to primary bone marrow macrophage cultures from normal mice; conversely, they caused extensive damage to macrophages from gp9lphox-/- mice, with more than 60% reduction in cell numbers 2.5h after being infected. The parental wild type strain similarly caused extensive damage to macrophages from both normal and gp9lphox-/- mice, whereas an aroA live vaccine strain had no effect on either normal or gp9lphox-/- macrophages. Taken collectively, the present results suggest that htrA is somehow involved in resistance to oxidative stress in vivo, with the avirulence of htrA mutants in mice being due to mechanisms which involve NADPH oxidase and suppression of bacterial growth within macrophages.
"have been isolated from stools of CGD patients with intestinal inflammation , , . Similarly, S. Typhimurium grows in systemic sites in NADPH oxidase deficient and in PMN-depleted mice , –. However, the importance of Cybb expression by PMN in preventing mucosal infection has not been fully understood. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections, microbe sampling and occasional leakage of commensal microbiota and their products across the intestinal epithelial cell layer represent a permanent challenge to the intestinal immune system. The production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase is thought to be a key element of defense. Patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease are deficient in one of the subunits of NADPH oxidase. They display a high incidence of Crohn's disease-like intestinal inflammation and are hyper-susceptible to infection with fungi and bacteria, including a 10-fold increased risk of Salmonellosis. It is not completely understood which steps of the infection process are affected by the NADPH oxidase deficiency. We employed a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea to study how NADPH oxidase deficiency (Cybb (-/-)) affects microbe handling by the large intestinal mucosa. In this animal model, wild type S. Typhimurium causes pronounced enteropathy in wild type mice. In contrast, an avirulent S. Typhimurium mutant (S.Tm(avir); invGsseD), which lacks virulence factors boosting trans-epithelial penetration and growth in the lamina propria, cannot cause enteropathy in wild type mice. We found that Cybb (-/-) mice are efficiently infected by S.Tm(avir) and develop enteropathy by day 4 post infection. Cell depletion experiments and infections in Cybb (-/-) Myd88 (-/-) mice indicated that the S.Tm(avir)-inflicted disease in Cybb (-/-) mice hinges on CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) monocytic phagocytes mediating colonization of the cecal lamina propria and on Myd88-dependent proinflammatory immune responses. Interestingly, in mixed bone marrow chimeras a partial reconstitution of Cybb-proficiency in the bone marrow derived compartment was sufficient to ameliorate disease severity. Our data indicate that NADPH oxidase expression is of key importance for restricting the growth of S.Tm(avir) in the mucosal lamina propria. This provides important insights into microbe handling by the large intestinal mucosa and the role of NADPH oxidase in maintaining microbe-host mutualism at this exposed body surface.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77204. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077204 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sigma(E), Cpx and Bae envelope stress responses of Escherichia coli are involved in the maintenance, adaptation and protection of the bacterial envelope in response to a variety of stressors. Recent studies indicate that the Cpx and sigma(E) stress responses exist in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The envelope is of particular importance to these organisms because most virulence determinants reside in, or must transit through, this cellular compartment. The Cpx system has been implicated in expression of pili, type IV secretion systems and key virulence regulators, while the sigma(E) pathway has been shown to be critical for protection from oxidative stress and intracellular survival. Homologues of the sigma(E)- and Cpx-regulated protease DegP are essential for full virulence in numerous pathogens, and, like sigma(E), DegP appears to confer resistance to oxidative stress and intracellular survival capacity. Some pathogens contain multiple homologues of the Cpx-regulated, disulphide bond catalyst DsbA protein, which has been demonstrated to play roles in the expression of secreted virulence determinants, type III secretion systems and pili. This review highlights recent studies that indicate roles for the sigma(E), Cpx and Bae envelope stress responses in Gram-negative bacterial pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While investigating the requirement for phagosomal alkalinization in the host defense against pulmonary aspergillosis, we
observed high morbidity of p47phox−/− mice infected with pH-insensitive Aspergillus nidulans mutants despite a paucity of fungal growth. Fatal infection also resulted from a normally avirulent p-aminobenzoate auxotroph. This demonstrates that p47phox−/− murine immunity contributes significantly to A. nidulans lethality. These data have wider implications for microbial virulence studies with p47phox−/− mice.
Infection and Immunity 09/2005; 73(8):5204-7. DOI:10.1128/IAI.73.8.5204-5207.2005 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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