Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium htrA mutants cause fatal infections in mice deficient in NADPH oxidase and destroy NADPH oxidase-deficient macrophage monolayers.
ABSTRACT Salmonella live vaccine strains harbouring mutations in htrA, a stress protein gene, display increased susceptibility to oxidative stress in vitro. This is believed to be connected to their reduced virulence, perhaps due to impaired survival inside phagocytes, although this has never been formally proven. We report that the in vitro phenotype of increased susceptibility to oxidative stress of Salmonella typhimurium htrA mutants newly prepared by transduction is rapidly lost on subculture, with the mutants becoming as resistant as the parent for reasons that remain unclear. However, despite this change, htrA mutants are still attenuated in normal mice. In contrast, they were found to be lethal for gene targeted gp91phox-/- mice deficient in NADPH oxidase, as was a S. typhimurium SPI-2 mutant known to be virulent in gp9lphox-/- mice. Infection with htrA mutants caused little damage to primary bone marrow macrophage cultures from normal mice; conversely, they caused extensive damage to macrophages from gp9lphox-/- mice, with more than 60% reduction in cell numbers 2.5h after being infected. The parental wild type strain similarly caused extensive damage to macrophages from both normal and gp9lphox-/- mice, whereas an aroA live vaccine strain had no effect on either normal or gp9lphox-/- macrophages. Taken collectively, the present results suggest that htrA is somehow involved in resistance to oxidative stress in vivo, with the avirulence of htrA mutants in mice being due to mechanisms which involve NADPH oxidase and suppression of bacterial growth within macrophages.
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ABSTRACT: The sigma(E), Cpx and Bae envelope stress responses of Escherichia coli are involved in the maintenance, adaptation and protection of the bacterial envelope in response to a variety of stressors. Recent studies indicate that the Cpx and sigma(E) stress responses exist in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The envelope is of particular importance to these organisms because most virulence determinants reside in, or must transit through, this cellular compartment. The Cpx system has been implicated in expression of pili, type IV secretion systems and key virulence regulators, while the sigma(E) pathway has been shown to be critical for protection from oxidative stress and intracellular survival. Homologues of the sigma(E)- and Cpx-regulated protease DegP are essential for full virulence in numerous pathogens, and, like sigma(E), DegP appears to confer resistance to oxidative stress and intracellular survival capacity. Some pathogens contain multiple homologues of the Cpx-regulated, disulphide bond catalyst DsbA protein, which has been demonstrated to play roles in the expression of secreted virulence determinants, type III secretion systems and pili. This review highlights recent studies that indicate roles for the sigma(E), Cpx and Bae envelope stress responses in Gram-negative bacterial pathogenesis.Molecular Microbiology 07/2005; 56(5):1119-28. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04625.x · 5.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While investigating the requirement for phagosomal alkalinization in the host defense against pulmonary aspergillosis, we observed high morbidity of p47(phox)(-/-) mice infected with pH-insensitive Aspergillus nidulans mutants despite a paucity of fungal growth. Fatal infection also resulted from a normally avirulent p-aminobenzoate auxotroph. This demonstrates that p47(phox)(-/-) murine immunity contributes significantly to A. nidulans lethality. These data have wider implications for microbial virulence studies with p47(phox)(-/-) mice.Infection and Immunity 09/2005; 73(8):5204-7. DOI:10.1128/IAI.73.8.5204-5207.2005 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The rapid activation of macrophages in response to bacterial antigens is central to the innate immune system that permits the recognition and killing of pathogens to limit infection. To understand regulatory mechanisms underlying macrophage activation, we have investigated changes in the abundance of calmodulin (CaM) and iNOS in response to the bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using RAW 264.7 macrophages. Critical to these measurements was the ability to differentiate free iNOS from the CaM-bound (active) form of iNOS associated with nitric oxide generation. We observe a rapid 2-fold increase in CaM abundance during the first 30 min that is blocked by inhibition of either NFkappaB nuclear translocation or protein synthesis. A similar 2-fold increase in the abundance of the complex between CaM and iNOS is observed with the same time dependence. In contrast, there are no detectable increases in the CaM-free (i.e., inactive) form of iNOS within the first 2 h; it remains at a very low abundance during the initial phase of macrophage activation. Increasing cellular CaM levels in stably transfected macrophages results in a corresponding increase in the abundance of the CaM/iNOS complex that promotes effective bacterial killing following infection by Salmonella typhimurium. Thus, LPS-dependent increases in CaM abundance function in the stabilization and activation of iNOS on the rapid time scale associated with macrophage activation and bacterial killing. These results explain how CaM and iNOS coordinately function to form a stable complex that is part of a rapid host response that functions within the first 30 min following bacterial infection to upregulate the innate immune system involving macrophage activation.Biochemistry 09/2006; 45(32):9717-26. DOI:10.1021/bi060485p · 3.01 Impact Factor