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Field evaluation of a rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serial serologic testing algorithm for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and dual HIV-1-HIV-2 infections in West African pregnant women.

Centre de Diagnostic et de Recherches sur le SIDA, CHU de Treichville, BP V3 Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology (Impact Factor: 4.23). 10/2004; 42(9):4147-53. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.42.9.4147-4153.2004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We evaluated a two-rapid-test serial algorithm using the Determine and Genie II rapid assays, performed on-site in four peripheral laboratories during the French Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS) 1201/1202 Ditrame Plus cohort developed for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Côte d'Ivoire. A total of 1,039 specimens were retested by two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The following specimens were tested: 315 specimens found on-site to be infected with HIV type 1 (HIV-1), 8 specimens found on-site to be infected with HIV-2, 71 specimens found on-site to be infected with both HIV-1 and HIV-2, 40 specimens found on-site to have indeterminate results for HIV infection, and 605 specimens taken during a quality assurance program. For HIV discrimination, 99 positive serum samples (20 with HIV-1, 8 with HIV-2, and 71 with HIV-1 and HIV-2 on the basis of our rapid test algorithm) were retested by the Peptilav test, Western blot (WB) assays, and homemade monospecific ELISAs. Real-time DNA PCRs for the detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 were performed with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35 women diagnosed on-site with HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. Compared to the results of the ELISAs, the sensitivities of the Determine and Genie II assays were 100% (95% lower limit [95% LL], 99.1%) and 99.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 98.2 to 99.9%), respectively. The specificities were 98.4% (95% CI, 96.9 to 99.3%) and 100% (95% LL, 99.3%), respectively. All serological assays gave concordant results for infections with single types. By contrast, for samples found to be infected with dual HIV types by the Genie II assay, dual reactivity was detected for only 37 samples (52.1%) by WB assays, 34 samples (47.9%) by the Peptilav assay, and 23 samples (32.4%) by the monospecific ELISAs. For specimens with dual reactivity by the Genie II assay, the rates of concordance between the real-time PCR assays and the serological assays were 25.7% for the Genie II assay, 82.9% for the Peptilav assay, 74.3% for WB assays, and 80% for the homemade ELISAs. Our algorithm provided high degrees of sensitivity and specificity comparable to those of ELISAs. Even if they are rare, women identified by the Genie II assay as being infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 mostly appeared to be infected only with HIV-2.

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: Dual infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2, which is not uncommon in West Africa, has implications for transmission, progression, and antiretroviral therapy. Few studies have examined viral dynamics in this setting. Our objective was to directly compare HIV-1 and HIV-2 viral loads and to examine whether this relationship is associated with CD4 count. STUDY DESIGN:: This is a retrospective analysis of data from observational cohort studies. METHODS:: We compared HIV-1 and HIV-2 viral loads from 65 dually infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve Senegalese subjects. Participants provided blood, oral fluid, and cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) or semen samples for virologic and immunologic testing. We assessed relationships between HIV-1 and HIV-2 levels using linear regression with generalized estimating equations to account for multiple study visits. RESULTS:: After adjusting for CD4 count, age, sex, and commercial sex work, HIV-1 RNA levels were significantly higher than HIV-2 levels in semen, CVL, and oral fluids. Despite similar PBMC DNA levels among subjects with CD4 counts above 500 cells/μl, subjects with CD4 counts below 500 cells/μl had higher HIV-1 and lower HIV-2 DNA levels. Subjects with high CD4 counts had higher mean HIV-1 plasma RNA viral loads than HIV-2, with HIV-1 levels significantly higher and HIV-2 levels trending toward lower mean viral loads among subjects with low CD4 counts. CONCLUSIONS:: Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that with disease progression, HIV-1 outcompetes HIV-2 in dually infected individuals. This finding helps explain differences in prevalence and outcomes between HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-dual infection.
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    ABSTRACT: Few data are available on antiretroviral therapy (ART) response among HIV-2 infected patients. We conducted a systematic review on treatment outcomes among HIV-2 infected patients on ART, focusing on the immunological and virological response in adults.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 08/2014; 14(1):461. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: West Africa is characterized by the circulation of HIV-1 and HIV-2. The laboratory diagnosis of these two infections as well as the choice of a first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is challenging, considering the limited access to second-line regimens. This study aimed at confirming the classification of HIV-2 and HIV-1&2 dually reactive patients followed up in the HIV-2 cohort of the West African Database to evaluate AIDS collaboration. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to December 2012 in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire and Mali among patients classified as HIV-2 or HIV-1&2 dually reactive according to the national HIV testing algorithms. A 5-ml blood sample was collected from each patient and tested in a single reference laboratory in Côte d'Ivoire (CeDReS, Abidjan) with two immuno-enzymatic tests: ImmunoCombII(®) (HIV-1&2 ImmunoComb BiSpot - Alere) and an in-house ELISA test, approved by the French National AIDS and hepatitis Research Agency (ANRS). Results: A total of 547 patients were included; 57% of them were initially classified as HIV-2 and 43% as HIV-1&2 dually reactive. Half of the patients had CD4≥500 cells/mm(3) and 68.6% were on ART. Of the 312 patients initially classified as HIV-2, 267 (85.7%) were confirmed as HIV-2 with ImmunoCombII(®) and in-house ELISA while 16 (5.1%) and 9 (2.9%) were reclassified as HIV-1 and HIV-1&2, respectively (Kappa=0.69; p<0.001). Among the 235 patients initially classified as HIV-1&2 dually reactive, only 54 (23.0%) were confirmed as dually reactive with ImmunoCombII(®) and in-house ELISA, while 103 (43.8%) and 33 (14.0%) were reclassified as HIV-1 and HIV-2 mono-infected, respectively (kappa= 0.70; p<0.001). Overall, 300 samples (54.8%) were concordantly classified as HIV-2, 63 (11.5%) as HIV-1&2 dually reactive and 119 (21.8%) as HIV-1 (kappa=0.79; p<0.001). The two tests gave discordant results for 65 samples (11.9%). Conclusions: Patients with HIV-2 mono-infection are correctly discriminated by the national algorithms used in West African countries. HIV-1&2 dually reactive patients should be systematically investigated, with a standardized algorithm using more accurate tests, before initiating ART as at least 4 out of 10 of them could initiate an effective first-line ART for HIV-1 and optimize their second-line treatment options.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 08/2014; 17(1):19064. · 4.21 Impact Factor

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