The natural history of recurrent optic neuritis
ABSTRACT Optic neuritis (ON) may occur in isolation or may herald multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Occasionally, ON may recur many times without intervening evidence of dissemination in space.
To define the clinical course and prognosis of patients with recurrent ON.
Retrospective medical record review and telephone follow-up survey.
Clinic-based practice in a large tertiary referral institution.
Survival analysis of conversion to MS and NMO and final visual impairment. We studied the association of clinical and demographic factors, the presence of brain lesions on magnetic resonance images, and the use of corticosteroid treatment at the time of the first ON occurrence with conversion to MS and NMO.
We identified 1274 patients with ON between 1994 and 2000 and selected 72 (5.7%) with recurrent ON without intervening symptoms of a disseminated demyelinating condition for further analysis. The 5-year conversion rate to NMO was 12.5% and to MS, 14.4%. Among 5 patients with 2 or more lesions consistent with MS on brain magnetic resonance images, 2 (40.0%) converted to MS and none to NMO, while among 11 patients without such lesions, none converted to MS and 2 (18.2%) converted to NMO (P =.16). Conversion to MS occurred in 7 (19.4%) of 36 individuals treated for their first ON episode with corticosteroids vs 4 (44.4%) of 9 untreated individuals (P =.19). There was no difference in the conversion rate to MS between those treated with intravenous steroids (4 [16.7%] of 24) vs oral steroids (3 [25.0%] of 12) (P =.33). Conversion to NMO occurred earlier than conversion to MS (2.3 +/- 1.6 vs 5.3 +/- 4.3 years, respectively; P =.01). Women tended to convert to NMO more frequently than men (female-male ratio for NMO converters, 7:1; MS converters, 2:1; nonconverters, 2:1; P =.56), as did those with a higher annual frequency of ON episodes (NMO converters, 2.0 +/- 1.3; MS converters, 1.0 +/- 1.0; nonconverters, 0.6 +/- 0.5; P =.04). The number of ON events in the first 2 years following the first ON episode was higher in the NMO group (NMO converters, 2.4 +/- 0.9; MS converters, 1.9 +/- 1.1; nonconverters, 1.7 +/- 0.7; P =.04). The final visual impairment was greatest in the NMO group (P =.02).
Patients with rapid succession of severe ON events are more likely to develop a generalized demyelinating disease. Patients with NMO had a worse visual outcome.
- SourceAvailable from: James M Dargin
Article: The painful eye.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Emergency physicians are required to diagnose and treat patients who have a painful eye on a regular basis. This article focuses on ophthalmologic emergencies that range in presentation from mild to severe symptomatology and include vision and eye-threatening ailments. The etiology, pathophysiology, physical examination, and treatment of the following conditions are discussed: acute angle closure glaucoma, scleritis, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, keratitis, and corneal abrasion. This article should provide the necessary information to allow for rapid diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment of the painful eye.Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 03/2008; 26(1):199-216, viii. DOI:10.1016/j.emc.2007.10.001 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The neurological outcome and predictive factors of idiopathic optic neuritis (ION) in China are largely unknown. The aim of this paper is to study the neurological outcome of Chinese ION and to investigate the early predictors for multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Retrospective medical record review and supplementary follow-up of 107 ION patients was performed. Statistical analysis of the baseline characteristics as risk factors for ION patients converting into MS or NMOSD was performed. With an average disease course of 9.5years, 19 of the 107 (17.7%) ION patients developed either MS (9, 8.4%) or NMOSD (10, 9.3%). The estimated 5-year and 10-year combined accumulative risk rates were 14.1% and 26.0%, respectively. Significantly higher estimated accumulative conversion risk was found in female versus male (P=0.047), adult versus children (P=0.032), patients with brain MRI lesions versus patients without leasions (P=0.026), patients with CSF positive oligoclonal bands and/or elevated IgG index versus without (P=0.003) and patients with poor visual recovery versus patients with good recovery (P=0.007). Furthermore, brain white matter lesions and good visual recovery were statistically more common typically in MS converters compared with the NMOSD converters (P=0.01 and P=0.006, respectively). The combined conversion rate for ION to MS/NMO in Chinese population was lower than the reported rate for Western countries. In addition to some previously reported high risk factors, white matter lesions on the brain MRI at baseline and good visual recovery were found to be good predictors for Chinese ION converting into MS whereas poor visual recovery with a normal brain MRI suggested a higher likelihood of the ION converting into NMOSD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of the Neurological Sciences 12/2014; 349(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2014.12.031 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background In acute optic neuritis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may help to confirm the diagnosis as well as to exclude alternative diagnoses. Yet, little is known on the value of optic nerve imaging for predicting clinical symptoms or therapeutic outcome. Purpose To evaluate the benefit of optic nerve MRI for predicting response to appropriate therapy and recovery of visual acuity. Methods Clinical data as well as visual evoked potentials (VEP) and MRI results of 104 patients, who were treated at the Department of Neurology with clinically definite optic neuritis between December 2010 and September 2012 were retrospectively reviewed including a follow up within 14 days. Results Both length of the Gd enhancing lesion (r = -0.38; p = 0.001) and the T2 lesion (r = -0.25; p = 0.03) of the optic nerve in acute optic neuritis showed a medium correlation with visual acuity after treatment. Although visual acuity pre-treatment was little but nonsignificantly lower if Gd enhancement of the optic nerve was detected via orbital MRI, improvement of visual acuity after adequate therapy was significantly better (0.40 vs. 0.24; p = 0.04). Intraorbitally located Gd enhancing lesions were associated with worse visual improvement compared to canalicular, intracranial and chiasmal lesions (0.35 vs. 0.54; p = 0.02). Conclusion Orbital MRI is a broadly available, valuable tool for predicting the improvement of visual function. While the accurate individual prediction of long-term outcomes after appropriate therapy still remains difficult, lesion length of Gd enhancement and T2 lesion contribute to its prediction and a better short-term visual outcome may be associated with detection and localization of Gd enhancement along the optic nerve.PLoS ONE 01/2015; DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113961 · 3.53 Impact Factor