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Toxicity of azodrin on the morphology and acetylcholinesterase activity of the earthworm Eisenia foetida

Toxicology Unit, Biology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500-007, India.
Environmental Research (Impact Factor: 3.95). 12/2004; 96(3):323-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2004.02.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The acute toxicity of azodrin (monocrotophos, an organophosphorus insecticide) was determined on a soil organism, Eisenia foetida. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) were derived from a 48-h paper contact test and from artificial soil tests. The LC50 of azodrin in the paper contact test was 0.46 +/- 0.1 microg cm(-2) (23 +/- 6 mg L(-1)) and those in the 7- and 14-day artificial soil tests were 171 +/- 21 and 132 +/- 20 mg kg(-1), respectively. The neurotoxic potentiality of azodrin was assessed by using a marker enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The progressive signs of morphological destruction are correlated with percentage inhibition of AChE in the in vivo experiments. The kinetics of AChE activity in the presence and absence of azodrin indicated that the toxicant is competitive in nature. This study demonstrated that azodrin causes concentration-dependent changes in the morphology and AChE activity of the earthworm E. foetida.

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Available from: Janapala Venkateswara Rao, Aug 23, 2015
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    • "Therefore, when evaluating the ecological risk on ecosystems it is of crucial significance to include the investigation of the effects of pesticide mixtures. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is a commonly applied biomarker of exposure to the organophosphate and carbamate compounds (Rao and Kavitha, 2004; Reinecke and Reinecke, 2007b; Rodriguez-Castellanos and Sanchez-Hernandez, 2007). Organophosphate and carbamate pesticides are the most commonly and widely used insecticides worldwide and have a broad spectrum of application in both agriculture and home environment. "
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    • "Therefore, when evaluating the ecological risk on ecosystems it is of crucial significance to include the investigation of the effects of pesticide mixtures. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is a commonly applied biomarker of exposure to the organophosphate and carbamate compounds (Rao and Kavitha, 2004; Reinecke and Reinecke, 2007b; Rodriguez-Castellanos and Sanchez-Hernandez, 2007). Organophosphate and carbamate pesticides are the most commonly and widely used insecticides worldwide and have a broad spectrum of application in both agriculture and home environment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Laboratory tests were conducted in order to investigate the effects of individual and binary-combined commercial insecticides endosulfan, temephos, malathion and pirimiphos-methyl on the earthworm Eisenia andrei. The effects of individual insecticides were determined by measuring the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). After exposure to studied insecticides, dose-dependent decrease in AChE activity and dose-dependent increase in CAT activity was recorded. The activity of GST was without consistent dose-response reaction, but generally the investigated insecticides caused the increase in GST activity. In order to determine the effects of binary-combined mixtures, and interactions between the components in the mixture, the relationship between effective concentration of AChE inhibition for mixture and effective concentration of AChE inhibition for each component in the mixture was investigated. The obtained results showed additive effect for mixtures endosulfan+malathion; endosulfan+pirimiphos-methyl; temephos+malathion and temephos+pirimiphos-methyl, synergistic effect for mixture endosulfan+temephos and in the case of mixture malathion+pirimiphos-methyl the antagonistic effect was indicated.
    07/2013; 36(2):715-723. DOI:10.1016/j.etap.2013.06.011
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    • "In that study Eisenia andrei and Octolasion lacteum earthworms were exposed to dimethoate using in vitro and filter paper contact test and significant changes in molecular biomarkers were recorded. Since rapid and reliable paper contact method can be employed initially (prior to the usage of artificial soil) to assess the toxicity of agricultural chemicals (Rao and Kavitha, 2004) and the artificial OECD soil gives toxicity data more representative of natural exposure of earthworms to chemicals (OECD, 1984), in this study E. andrei earthworms were exposed to dimethoate in the artificial OECD soil. Considering the mode of action of investigate pesticide, and previous research (Velki and Hackenberger, 2012), for investigation of its effects on earthworms following molecular biomarkers have been selected e activity of acetycholinesterase (AChE), activity of carboxylesterase (CES), activity of catalase (CAT), activity of glutathione S-transferases (GST), concentration of glutathione (GSH) and activity of efflux pump. "
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Dimethoate is a broad-spectrum organophosphorous insecticide produced and used in many countries against a wide range of pests. Like other pesticides, dimethoate also affects many non-target organisms, including soil organisms. In this study for the first time effects of dimethoate on molecular biomarkers (AChE, CES, CAT and GST activity, concentration of GSH and efflux pump activity) of Eisenia andrei earthworms were evaluated using the artificial OECD soil. Earthworms were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of dimethoate (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg) for 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21 and 28 days and besides the time-related responses of biomarkers, the recovery of AChE, CES and CAT activity was also investi-gated. Results showed that dimethoate caused dose dependent significant changes in measured biomarkers e inhibition of AChE, CES and CAT activity; increase in GST activity and concentration of GSH; and both induction and inhibition of efflux pump activity. Additionally, the selected molecular biomarkers showed slow recovery rate and at the highest applied concentration of dimethoate, the inhibition of enzymes was evident even after 28 days of recovery. The obtained results indicate that application of dimethoate in agriculture could have harmful effects on earthworms since application of environmentally relevant doses, i.e. doses that are applied in agriculture, caused significant changes in measured biomarkers.
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 11/2012; 57. DOI:10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.09.018 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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