Proteasome-dependent degradation of cytochromes P450 2E1 and 2B1 expressed in tetracycline-regulated HeLa cells
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland 97239-3098, USA. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
(Impact Factor: 3.71).
10/2004; 199(3):332-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2003.12.019
The degradation of ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) expressed in tetracycline (Tc)-inducible HeLa cell lines was characterized. A steady-state pulse-chase analysis was used to determine a half-life of 3.8 h for CYP2E1 while the half-life of CYP2B1 was 2.3-fold greater in the same cell line. In contrast, NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase which is constitutively expressed in Tc-HeLa cells had a half-life of about 30 h. Lactacystin and other selective proteasome inhibitors including N-benzyloxycarbonyl-leucyl-leucyl-leucinal (MG132) and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norvalinal (MG115) significantly inhibited both CYP2E1 and CYP2B1 degradation. The turnover of CYP2E1 was slightly inhibited by calpain inhibitors while CYP2B1 turnover was not altered. Inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis had no effect on the degradation of either protein. Treatment of cells with brefeldin A did not alter the degradation of either P450 which suggested the degradation occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Even in the presence of proteasome inhibitors high molecular weight ubiquitin conjugates were not observed. Mutagenesis of two putative ubiquitination sites (Lys 317 and 324) did not alter the degradation of CYP2E1. The role of ubiquitination in the degradation of CYP2E1 was also examined in a Chinese hamster mutant cell line E36ts20 that contains a thermolabile ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1). The turnover of CYP2E1 was not significantly different at the nonpermissive temperature in the ts20 when compared to the control E36 cells. Furthermore, the addition of the hsp90 inhibitors geldanamycin, herbimycin, and radicicol had no effect on the turnover of CYP2E1, differentiating the degradation of CYP2E1 from other substrates for proteasome-dependent degradation.
Available from: Victor Zgoda
- "). 4 In contrast, CYP2B1 and CYP2E1 stably expressed in HeLa cells exhibit considerably shorter half-lives (t 1/2 Ϸ 8.7 and 3.7 h, respectively) and are degraded in a ubiquitin (Ub)-independent process, blocked by specific proteasomal but not lysosomal inhibitors (Huan et al., 2004). The basis for this accelerated P450 protein turnover and altered degradation route is unclear. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mammalian hepatic cytochromes P450 (P450s) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored hemoproteins with highly variable half-lives. CYP3A4, the dominant human liver drug-metabolizing enzyme, and its rat liver orthologs undergo ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent 26S proteasomal degradation after suicide inactivation or after heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast, rat liver CYP2C11 is degraded by the vacuolar "lysosomal" pathway when similarly expressed in yeast. The structural determinants that commit P450s to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation are unknown. To further validate S. cerevisiae as a model for exploring mammalian P450 turnover, the degradation of phenobarbital-inducible liver CYP2B1, an enzyme reportedly degraded via the rat hepatic autophagic-lysosomal pathway, was examined in a yeast strain (pep4delta) deficient in vacuolar degradation and its isogenic wild-type control (PEP4). Although CYP2B1 was equivalently expressed in both strains during early logarithmic growth, its degradation was retarded in pep4delta strain, remaining at a level 5-fold higher than that in PEP4 yeast when monitored at the stationary phase. No comparable CYP2B1 stabilization was detected in yeast genetically deficient in the ER Ub-conjugating enzyme Ubc6p or Ubc7p or defective in 19S proteasomal subunit Hrd2p. Thus, as in the rat liver, CYP2B1 is a target of vacuolar/lysosomal rather than proteasomal degradation in yeast, thereby further validating this model for mammalian P450 turnover. It is intriguing that a chimeric protein, CYP2B1-3A4CT, with the CYP3A4 C-terminal heptapeptide grafted onto the CYP2B1 C terminus, was proteasomally degraded after similar expression. Such diversion of CYP2B1 from its predominantly vacuolar degradation suggests that the CYP3A4 heptapeptide could either actively signal its proteasomal degradation or block its vacuolar proteolysis.
Molecular Pharmacology 06/2005; 67(5):1460-9. DOI:10.1124/mol.104.009654 · 4.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ethanol-induced oxidative stress plays a major role in the mechanisms by which ethanol causes liver injury. Many pathways contribute to how ethanol induces a state of oxidative stress. One central pathway appears to be the induction, by ethanol, of the CYP2E1 form of cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP2E1 is of interest because it metabolises and activates many toxicological substrates, including ethanol, to more reactive products. Levels of CYP2E1 are elevated under a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions. CYP2E1 is an effective generator of reactive oxygen species. This review summarises some of the biochemical and toxicological properties of CYP2E1, and briefly describes the use of HepG2 cell lines in assessing the actions of CYP2E1. Future directions, which may help to better understand the actions of CYP2E1 and its role in alcoholic liver injury, are suggested.
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 01/2006; 1(4):671-85. DOI:10.1517/17425255.1.4.671 · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alcohol-inducible cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) has the most rapid turnover of any member of this large family of membrane-bound oxygenases, and its degradation rate is altered profoundly by various substrates, such as ethanol and CCl(4). CYP2E1 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and because the hsp90/hsp70-based chaperone machinery is often involved in maintaining the balance between protein integrity and degradation by this pathway, we have asked whether CYP2E1 is regulated by the chaperone machinery. We show here that treatment of transformed human skin fibroblasts stably expressing CYP2E1 with the hsp90 inhibitor radicicol results in CYP2E1 degradation that is inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. Immunoadsorption of hsp90 from cytosol of HEK cells expressing the truncated CYP2E1(Delta3-29) yields coadsorption of CYP2E1(Delta3-29). Cotransfection of HEK cells with both the truncated CYP2E1 and the hsp70-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP results in CYP2E1(Delta3-29) degradation, and CYP2E1(Delta3-29) co-immunoadsorbs with myc-CHIP from cytosol of cotransfected cells. Purified, bacterially expressed CYP2E1(Delta3-29) is ubiquitylated in a CHIP-dependent manner when it is incubated with a purified system containing the E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme, E2, and CHIP. CYP2E1 is the first P450 shown to be an hsp90 "client" protein that can be ubiquitylated by the hsp70-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP. Our observations lead to a general model of how substrates, such as ethanol, can regulate the interaction of CYP2E1 with the chaperones hsp90 and hsp70 to profoundly alter enzyme turnover.
Biochemistry 01/2006; 44(49):16333-40. DOI:10.1021/bi0515570 · 3.02 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.