Premenstrual symptoms and luteal suicide attempts
ABSTRACT If premenstrual symptoms (PMS) are temporally and specifically associated with suicidal attempts, suicide attempts in women with PMS should occur more frequently in the luteal phase.
In a general hospital, 125 fertile female suicide attempters (and 83 blood donors as controls) with regular menstrual cycles were prospectively studied. A retrospective DSM-IV diagnosis of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) was made.
Attempts during the luteal phase were not more frequent in females with PMDD (34%,23/68) than in those without PMDD (35%, 20/57). The sample had enough power to detect medium and large effect sizes. As expected, there was a significantly higher frequency of PMDD in suicide attempters than in the controls (54% vs 6%; Fisher's exact test, p < or = 0.001).
This study was limited by the use of retrospective PMDD diagnosis but suggests that PMDD may not be associated with suicidal acts during the luteal phase,when PMS are present.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the available data regarding possible associations between phases of the menstrual cycle and suicidal behaviour. A systematic search of major relevant databases was performed using appropriate search terms. Forty-four relevant studies were identified in total, 13 pertaining to suicide, two pertaining to both attempted and completed suicide, 23 to suicide attempts, three to suicide attempts in those suffering from the premenstrual syndrome (PMS), three to suicidal ideation and two to repetitive self-harming behaviours. A variety of methodologies were used in these studies and there were notable differences in the conclusions reached. Studies with better methodology suggest that a positive relationship exists between aspects of the menstrual cycle and non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Such behaviour appears to be more common in those phases of the menstrual cycle when oestrogen levels are lowest (the late luteal and follicular phases), and in those suffering from PMS. There appears to be an association between the menstrual cycle and non-fatal suicidal behaviours. Interaction between oestrogen and the serotonergic system may provide a possible mechanism.Psychological Medicine 08/2006; 36(7):901-12. DOI:10.1017/S0033291706007392 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preliminary studies suggest that moderate physical activity may reduce both premenstrual distress (PD) and the ovarian steroid hormones, progesterone and estradiol, which have been implicated in PD. We attempted to replicate these findings, while exploring possible relationships between hormone levels and PD. In a cross-sectional study, 20 moderate exercisers and 34 sedentary women completed PD symptom questionnaires and collected urine samples, daily, throughout a complete menstrual cycle. PD was calculated as the difference in symptom scores reported during the average of the 4 days prior to menses and the average of the 4 days closest to mid-cycle. Urine samples taken from the last quarter of the menstrual cycle were analyzed for urinary estrone glucoronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucoronide. In a prospective study the same measures were used with 14 sedentary women before and after a 24-week moderate exercise-training program. In the cross-sectional study, exercising women reported lower Pain symptoms, and had lower peak E1G levels than did sedentary women. The baseline PD symptoms loneliness, crying, and skin blemishes with were statistically significantly and positively correlated with pregnanediol glucoronide levels in the cross-sectional study. In the prospective study, exercise reduced the global PD symptom score, including the Water Retention and Pain scales, and reduced pregnanediol glucoronide and peak E1G levels. Moderate aerobic exercise may lessen both PD symptoms and late luteal phase ovarian hormone levels. An exercise program may benefit women with progesterone-related premenstrual affect disturbance.Arbeitsphysiologie 02/2007; 99(1):27-37. DOI:10.1007/s00421-006-0313-7 · 2.30 Impact Factor