Cardiac hypertrophy in vitamin D receptor knockout mice: role of the systemic and cardiac renin-angiotensin systems
ABSTRACT Our recent studies suggest that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 functions as an endocrine suppressor of renin biosynthesis. Genetic disruption of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) results in overstimulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), leading to high blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy. Consistent with the higher heart-to-body weight ratio, the size of left ventricular cardiomyocytes in VDR knockout (KO) mice was markedly increased compared with wild-type (WT) mice. As expected, levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) mRNA and circulating ANP were also increased in VDRKO mice. Treatment of VDRKO mice with captopril reduced cardiac hypertrophy and normalized ANP expression. To investigate the role of the cardiac RAS in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, the expression of renin, angiotensinogen, and AT-1a receptor in the heart was examined by real-time RT-PCR and immunostaining. In VDRKO mice, the cardiac renin mRNA level was significantly increased, and this increase was further amplified by captopril treatment. Consistently, intense immunostaining was detected in the left ventricle of captopril-treated WT and VDRKO mice by use of an anti-renin antibody. Levels of cardiac angiotensinogen and AT-1a receptor mRNAs were unchanged in the mutant mice. These data suggest that the cardiac hypertrophy seen in VDRKO mice is a consequence of activation of both the systemic and cardiac RAS and support the notion that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) regulates cardiac functions, at least in part, through the RAS.
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to cardiovascular disease and risk factors including hypertension. The authors sought to determine prevalence rates of hypertension in adults tested for 25-hydroxyvitamin D categorized by their levels and evaluate odds ratios for hypertension at lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels compared with optimal levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2006, of patients aged 18 years and older within a large ethnically diverse population. Diagnosis of hypertension was determined by International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes. Patients were categorized into quartiles according to 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: ideal (≥40 ng/mL), adequate (30-39 ng/mL), deficient (15-29 ng/mL), and severely deficient (<15 ng/mL). Prevalence rates of hypertension and odds ratios were calculated for each 25-hydroxyvitamin D quartile, adjusting for age, sex, race, and renal insufficiency. A total of 2722 individuals met the inclusion criteria for the study. The overall prevalence of hypertension in the study population was 24%. Hypertension rates were 52%, 41%, 27%, and 20% in 25-hydroxyvitamin D quartiles <15 ng/mL, 15 to 29 ng/mL, 30 to 39 ng/mL, and ≥40 ng/mL, respectively (P<.001). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for hypertension adjusting for age, sex, race, and renal insufficiency were 2.7 (1.4-5.2), 2.0 (1.5-2.6), and 1.3 (1.2-1.6) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <15 ng/mL, 15 to 29 ng/mL, and 30 to 39 ng/mL, respectively, compared with the ≥40 ng/mL group. This study demonstrates increased rates of hypertension in individuals who tested for lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D starting at levels <40 ng/mL. This retrospective analysis raises the question of whether supplementing to optimal vitamin D levels can prevent or improve hypertension.Journal of Clinical Hypertension 03/2011; 13(3):170-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-7176.2010.00408.x · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and patients with DM frequently develop diabetic cardiomyopathy. Currently, effective treatments for diabetic cardiomyopathy are limited. Vitamin D exerts pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system and is associated with DM. The purpose of this review was to evaluate published research on vitamin D in diabetic cardiomyopathy by searching PubMed databases. Herein, we reviewed vitamin D metabolism; evaluated the molecular, cellular, and neuroendocrine effects in native and bioactive vitamin D; and evaluated the role of vitamin D in treating cardiovascular disease and DM. Some evidence suggests that vitamin D may improve cardiovascular outcomes in diabetes through anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antihypertrophic, antifibrotic, and antiatherosclerotic activities and by regulating advanced glycation end-product signaling, the renin-angiotensin system, and cardiac metabolism. This clinical and laboratory evidence suggests that vitamin D may be a potential agent in treating diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, using vitamin D entails possible adverse risks of hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and vascular calcifications. Therefore, future studies should be conducted that clarify the potential benefits of vitamin D through large-scale randomized clinical trials in well-defined groups of diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Nutrition Research 02/2015; 35(4). DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.02.005 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: -Vitamin D supplementation may be an inexpensive intervention to reduce heart failure (HF) incidence. However, there are insufficient data to support this hypothesis. This study evaluates whether vitamin D plus calcium (CaD) supplementation is associated with lower rates of HF in post-menopausal women and whether the effects differ between those at high versus low risk for HF.Circulation Heart Failure 11/2014; 8(1). DOI:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.114.001738 · 5.95 Impact Factor