Chemical constituents of Morinda citrifolia fruits inhibit copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation
ABSTRACT The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays an important role in the genesis of arteriosclerosis. The present study focused on the effects of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia on preventing arteriosclerosis. The MeOH extract and CHCl(3)-, EtOAc-, n-BuOH-, and H(2)O-soluble phases derived from the fruits of M. citrifolia were evaluated for their inhibitory activity on copper-induced LDL oxidation by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) method. The MeOH extract and EtOAc-soluble phase showed 88 and 96% inhibition, respectively. Six lignans were isolated by repeated column chromatography from the EtOAc-soluble phase. These compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis to be 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), americanol A (2), americanin A (3), americanoic acid A (4), morindolin (5), and isoprincepin (6), of which 4 and 5 are novel compounds. These compounds inhibited copper-induced LDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. 1, 2, 5, and 6 exhibited remarkably strong activities, which were the same or better than that of the known antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol. The IC(50) values for 1, 2, 5, and 6 were 1.057, 2.447, 2.020, and 1.362 microM, respectively. The activity of these compounds is mainly due to their number of phenolic hydroxyl groups.
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ABSTRACT: The miracle medicinal plant Morinda citrifolia L., also called as Noni, Great Morinda or Indian mulberry, belongs to the family Rubiaceae. Its fruit has been used traditionally for more than 2000 years by native Polynesians. However, all parts of the plant have medicinal properties. More than 160 phytochemicals have been isolated from the plant Noni, which makes it an amazing herbal remedy for the treatment of numerous disorders including cancer. Recently, the Noni juice has been in high demand in market as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for its multi-dimensional health benefits. It is a potent antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihelminthic, anticancer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hypotensive, cardiovascular protective, wound healer, anxiolytic, sedative, antigout, antiobesity and immune enhancing agent. Anticancerous activity of Morinda citrifolia is attributable to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and apoptosis-inducing effects. Based on toxicological and mutagenicity assessment, Noni juice has been considered as safe. Few reports of hepatotoxicity exist, although there are many evidences suggesting hepatoprotective effects of Noni. Even though large number of in vitro studies has been carried out but only few clinical trials exist in the literature to suggest real beneficial effects of Noni in humans. Recently, Noni fruit juice has been accepted as a novel food element in the European Union. A number of scientific studies have been conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of phytoconstituents of Noni. In this review, active phytochemical constituents, pharmacological properties, mechanism of action, and various immunomodulatory and therapeutic potentials of Noni usage as a useful herbal medicine are discussed in detail, which could be very helpful in safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals. A special focus has been made on the potent utility of this wonderful herbal plant in preventing and treating the deadly malady of cancer.International Journal of Pharmacology 05/2014; 9(8):462-492.. DOI:10.3923/ijp.2013.462.492 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated maximum yield of radical scavenging activity (RSA) using each of various extraction solvents and procedure from noni friut (Morinda citrifolia). Noni fruits were either sun-dried (FS) or hot-air dried (FO) at after steam blanching. For optimum aqueous extraction, noni fruits should be sun dried and autoclave extraction time should not be over 30 min to produce extraction with high RSA with low cost. In case of 50% ethanol extraction, reflux extracts of FS and FO resulted in of 1.92 mg/mL and 3.06 mg/mL at 8 hr. When values were lower than 5 mg/mL, coefficient of correlation was 0.71 indicating that 71% of the phenolic antioxidants in noni fruits were accounted for the activity by scavenging free DPPH. However, coefficient of correlation significantly decreased to 0.63 over values of 5 mg/mL. Autoclave extraction contained chlorogenic acid of and scopoletin of . Reflux extraction showed all three compounds, chlorogenic acid (), quercetin (), and scopoletin (). Therefore, the result of this study indicated that the potential antioxidant activities and functional values were obtained significantly with reflux extraction from noni fruit.02/2011; 19(1). DOI:10.7783/KJMCS.2011.19.1.038
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ABSTRACT: Noni is a fruit that has interested the scientific community due to its medicinal and functional activities. Different products that contain noni are already in the market, but their consumption could be impaired by their distinctive unpleasant aroma and flavor. The aim of this work was to evaluate the noni pulp volatile profile by dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty seven volatile compounds were detected, mainly alcohols (63.3%), esters (26.9%), cetones (7.4%), and acids (1.2%).Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos 09/2010; 30(3):641-644. DOI:10.1590/S0101-20612010000300011 · 0.41 Impact Factor