Heat shock protein 60 from Chlamydia pneumoniae elicits an unusual set of inflammatory responses via Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 in vivo.
ABSTRACT Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) from Chlamydia pneumoniae was described to trigger in vitro inflammatory and cytokine responses including TNF and IL-12p40. Although it can be found in atherosclerotic plaques of patients, the stimulatory potential of chlamydial and other HSP60 in vivo is unclear. We now report that chlamydial HSP60 fails to induce TNF expression in vivo, and significant serum levels of IL-12p40 are only found upon intraperitoneal injection of high doses of HSP60 or after intravenous application. Upon purification of chlamydial HSP60 with polymyxin B-agarose columns, its ability to induce TNF secretion in vitro is much reduced. However, purified chlamydial HSP60 causes increased serum levels of the CXC chemokines KC and MIP2 in vivo, as well as a strong accumulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in the peritoneal cavity upon intraperitoneal challenge. With respect to PMN accumulation, chlamydial HSP60 is more potent than endotoxin or the CpG oligonucleotide 1668. The responses observed are completely abolished in Toll-like receptor (TLR)2/4-double-deficient mice, while single-deficient mice respond almost normally. Furthermore, KC induction and PMN accumulation are largely dependent on MyD88. In conclusion, HSP60 from C. pneumoniae triggers inflammatory responses in vivo that differ from responses induced by endotoxin or CpG oligonucleotides and are dependent on TLR2 and 4.
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ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are widely expressed and play an essential role in the activation of innate immune cells. However, certain TLRs are also expressed on T cells, and TLR ligands can directly modulate T cell functions. Here, we discuss findings indicating that T cells directly respond to Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 60, a self molecule, or to the HSP60-derived peptide, p277, via a TLR2-dependent mechanism. HSP60 has been considered to be a "danger signal" for the immune system because of its ability to induce pro-inflammatory phenotypes in innate immune cells - in this case via TLR4 activation; nevertheless, TLR2 engagement by HSP60 on T cells can lead to resolution of inflammation by up-regulating the suppression function of regulatory T cells and shifting the resulting cytokine secretion balance toward a Th2 phenotype. Moreover, T cell TLR4 engagement by LPS leads to up-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression and consequently down-regulates T cell chemotaxis. Thus, TLR2 and TLR4 activation can contribute to both induction and termination of effector immune responses by controlling the activities of both innate and adaptive immune cells.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2013; 4:211.
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ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the majority of RTIs are caused by viruses, among which respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the closely related human metapneumovirus (hMPV) figure prominently. Host innate immune response has been implicated in recognition, protection and immune pathological mechanisms. Host-viral interactions are generally initiated via host recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the virus. This recognition occurs through host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which are expressed on innate immune cells such as epithelial cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils. Multiple PRR families, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), contribute significantly to viral detection, leading to induction of cytokines, chemokines and type I interferons (IFNs), which subsequently facilitate the eradication of the virus. This review focuses on the current literature on RSV and hMPV infection and the role of PRRs in establishing/mediating the infection in both in vitro and in vivo models. A better understanding of the complex interplay between these two viruses and host PRRs might lead to efficient prophylactic and therapeutic treatments, as well as the development of adequate vaccines.Pathogens. 06/2013; 2(2).
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ABSTRACT: Chaperonin 60 is the prototypic molecular chaperone, an essential protein in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, whose sequence conservation provides an excellent basis for phylogenetic analysis. Escherichia coli chaperonin 60 (GroEL), the prototype of this family of proteins, has an established oligomeric-structure-based folding mechanism and a defined population of folding partners. However, there is a growing number of examples of chaperonin 60 proteins whose crystal structures and oligomeric composition are at variance with GroEL, suggesting that additional complexities in the protein-folding function of this protein should be expected. In addition, many organisms have multiple chaperonin 60 proteins, some of which have lost their protein-folding ability. It is emerging that this highly conserved protein has evolved a bewildering variety of additional biological functions - known as moonlighting functions - both within the cell and in the extracellular milieu. Indeed, in some organisms, it is these moonlighting functions that have been left after the loss of the protein-folding activity. This highlights the major paradox in the biology of chaperonin 60. This article reviews the relationship between the folding and non-folding (moonlighting) activities of the chaperonin 60 family and discusses current knowledge on their molecular evolution focusing on protein domains involved in the non-folding chaperonin functions in an attempt to understand the emerging biology of this evolutionarily ancient protein family.Biological Reviews 03/2013; · 10.26 Impact Factor