Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) from Chlamydia pneumoniae was described to trigger in vitro inflammatory and cytokine responses including TNF and IL-12p40. Although it can be found in atherosclerotic plaques of patients, the stimulatory potential of chlamydial and other HSP60 in vivo is unclear. We now report that chlamydial HSP60 fails to induce TNF expression in vivo, and significant serum levels of IL-12p40 are only found upon intraperitoneal injection of high doses of HSP60 or after intravenous application. Upon purification of chlamydial HSP60 with polymyxin B-agarose columns, its ability to induce TNF secretion in vitro is much reduced. However, purified chlamydial HSP60 causes increased serum levels of the CXC chemokines KC and MIP2 in vivo, as well as a strong accumulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in the peritoneal cavity upon intraperitoneal challenge. With respect to PMN accumulation, chlamydial HSP60 is more potent than endotoxin or the CpG oligonucleotide 1668. The responses observed are completely abolished in Toll-like receptor (TLR)2/4-double-deficient mice, while single-deficient mice respond almost normally. Furthermore, KC induction and PMN accumulation are largely dependent on MyD88. In conclusion, HSP60 from C. pneumoniae triggers inflammatory responses in vivo that differ from responses induced by endotoxin or CpG oligonucleotides and are dependent on TLR2 and 4.
"Identifying chlamydial antigens involved in MyD88/TLR dependent recognition and subsequent TLR-driven immune pathology is a major issue in Chlamydia research (Joyee and Yang, 2008). Several studies have shown that chlamydial LPS and HSP60 are associated with TLR2 and TLR4 recognition by monocytes or dendritic cells (Vabulas et al., 2001; Heine et al., 2003; da Costa et al., 2004). Moreover, macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) has been associated with TLR2 recognition (Bas et al., 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although the prevalence of chlamydial infection is similar in men and women, current research and screening are still focused on women, who develop the most severe complications, leaving the study of male genital tract (MGT) infection underrated. Herein, we reviewed the literature on genital CT infection with special focus on the MGT. Data indicate that CT certainly infects different parts of the MGT such as the urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate, epididymis and testis. However, whether or not CT infection has detrimental effects on male fertility is still controversial. The most important features of CT infection are its chronic nature and the presence of a mild inflammation that remains subclinical in most individuals. Chlamydia antigens and pathogen recognition receptors (PRR), expressed on epithelial cells and immune cells from the MGT, have been studied in the last years. Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression has been observed in the testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. It has been demonstrated that recognition of chlamydial antigens is associated with TLR2, TLR4, and possibly, other PRRs. CT recognition by PRRs induces a local production of cytokines/chemokines, which, in turn, provoke chronic inflammation that might evolve in the onset of an autoimmune process in genetically susceptible individuals. Understanding local immune response along the MGT, as well as the crosstalk between resident leukocytes, epithelial, and stromal cells, would be crucial in inducing a protective immunity, thus adding to the design of new therapeutic approaches to a Chlamydia vaccine.
"As such, the atherosclerotic plaque is likely to contain many endogenous ligands (Table 1). For example, HSPs induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines in a TLR2- and TLR4-dependent pathway [105, 106]. Degradation products of extracellular matrix macromolecules are generated during tissue injury, or remodelling, and have been found to function as TLR ligands. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation drives atherosclerosis. Both immune and resident vascular cell types are involved in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The phenotype and function of these cells are key in determining the development of lesions. Toll-like receptors are the most characterised innate immune receptors and are responsible for the recognition of exogenous conserved motifs on pathogens, and, potentially, some endogenous molecules. Both endogenous and exogenous TLR agonists may be present in atherosclerotic plaques. Engagement of toll-like receptors on immune and resident vascular cells can affect atherogenesis as signalling downstream of these receptors can elicit proinflammatory cytokine release, lipid uptake, and foam cell formation and activate cells of the adaptive immune system. In this paper, we will describe the expression of TLRs on immune and resident vascular cells, highlight the TLR ligands that may act through TLRs on these cells, and discuss the consequences of TLR activation in atherosclerosis.
Mediators of Inflammation 06/2010; 2010:393946. DOI:10.1155/2010/393946 · 3.24 Impact Factor
"Moreover, additional studies indicate that not only one but several other subtypes of TLR might be crucial for host cell activation via Cp. Studies concerning dendritic cells were able to depict a role of both TLR2/4 in cHSP60-dependent inflammatory processes (Da Costa et al., 2004). However, even receptors other than TLR2/4, for example receptors of the Nod family seem to be involved in host cell activation as cells lacking these receptor subtypes could be activated sufficiently through Cp (Krüll et al., 2005; Opitz et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since its description in 1986, Chlamydia pneumoniae has remained one of the most enigmatic pathogens. This intracellular bacterium is highly seroprevalent, but rarely recovered from cell culture, it can genetically switch between a proliferative and a nonreplicative state and has been linked to a vast number of chronic diseases, most notably to atherosclerosis, as it can be found in the plaques. It has become quite clear that persistent bacteria in atherosclerotic lesions cannot be eradicated by currently available antibiotic treatments and that attempts to do so without a better understanding of the pathobiology of chlamydial persistence are futile. However, there is growing knowledge on how vascular chlamydial infection may lead to the pathological reprogramming of the host cell signaling pathways. Chlamydia pneumoniae is now well known to induce, at least in vitro, the two pathogenetic main events that define atherosclerosis: angiogenesis and inflammation. In vivo a contribution of chlamydial infection to the progression of atherosclerosis remains unproven. This minireview provides a brief overview on the proproliferative and proinflammatory effects of vascular C. pneumoniae infection and their potential link to atherogenesis.
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