Identification of a KCNE2 gain-of-function mutation in patients with familial atrial fibrillation.
ABSTRACT Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. We first reported an S140G mutation of KCNQ1, an alpha subunit of potassium channels, in one Chinese kindred with AF. However, the molecular defects and cellular mechanisms in most patients with AF remain to be identified. We evaluated 28 unrelated Chinese kindreds with AF and sequenced eight genes of potassium channels (KCNQ1, HERG, KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNE3, KCNE4, KCNE5, and KCNJ2). An arginine-to-cysteine mutation at position 27 (R27C) of KCNE2, the beta subunit of the KCNQ1-KCNE2 channel responsible for a background potassium current, was found in 2 of the 28 probands. The mutation was present in all affected members in the two kindreds and was absent in 462 healthy unrelated Chinese subjects. Similar to KCNQ1 S140G, the mutation had a gain-of-function effect on the KCNQ1-KCNE2 channel; unlike long QT syndrome-associated KCNE2 mutations, it did not alter HERG-KCNE2 current. The mutation did not alter the functions of the HCN channel family either. Thus, KCNE2 R27C is a gain-of-function mutation associated with the initiation and/or maintenance of AF.
Article: Genetic polymorphism of KCNH2 confers predisposition of acquired atrial fibrillation in Chinese.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nonfamiliar atrial fibrillation (AF) is usually associated with acquired structural heart disease, including valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, and hypertension. Suggestive evidence indicates that these forms of acquired AF are more likely to occur in individuals with a genetic predisposition. We investigated the effect of the potassium channel voltage-gated subfamily member 2 (KCNH2) gene on the prevalence of acquired AF in a Chinese population. In a pair-matched, hospital-based case control study (297 vs 297) conducted in Chinese Hans, we investigated 4 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs), rs1805120, rs1036145, rs3807375, and rs2968857 in the KCNH2 gene, and determined their association with AF acquired from structural heart diseases. We did not observe the association of rs1036145, rs3807375, and rs2968857 with AF. However, we determined that the tSNP, rs1805120, in exon 6 confers the risk of AF in Chinese Hans. Both genotype and allele frequencies of rs1805120 were distributed differently in cases and controls (P = 0.0289 and P = 0.0172, respectively). The most significant association was observed under a recessive model for the minor GG genotype with a 1.45-fold risk of developing AF (95% confidence interval 1.09-1.93, P = 0.012). The significance remained after controlling for the covariates of age, smoking, BMI, hypertension, and diabetes. We report a new genetic variation (rs1805120) in the KCNH2 gene that predisposes Chinese Han individuals to the risk of acquired AF. Further genetic and functional studies are required to identify the etiological variants in linkage disequilibrium with this polymorphism.Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 06/2009; 20(10):1158-62. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and its incidence is expected to grow. A genetic predisposition for AF has long been recognized, but its manifestation in these patients likely involves a combination of rare and common genetic variants. Identifying genetic variants that associate with a high penetrance for AF would represent a significant breakthrough for understanding the mechanisms that associate with disease. METHOD AND RESULTS: Candidate gene sequencing in 5 unrelated families with familial AF identified the KCNQ1 missense mutation p.Arg231His (R231H). In addition to AF, several of the family members have abnormal QTc intervals, syncope or experienced sudden cardiac arrest or death. KCNQ1 encodes the voltage-gated K(+) channel that conducts the slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current in the heart. Functional and computational analyses suggested that R231H increases KCNQ1 current (I(KCNQ1) ) to shorten the atrial action potential (AP) duration. R231H is predicted to minimally affect ventricular excitability, but it prevented the increase in I(KCNQ1) following PKA activation. The unique properties of R231H appeared to be caused by a loss in voltage-dependent gating. CONCLUSIONS: The R231H variant causes a high penetrance for interfamilial early-onset AF. Our study indicates R231H likely shortens atrial refractoriness to promote a substrate for reentry. Additionally, R231H might cause abnormal ventricular repolarization by disrupting PKA activation of I(KCNQ1) . We conclude genetic variants, which increase I(Ks) during the atrial AP, decrease the atrial AP duration, and/or shorten atrial refractoriness, present a high risk for interfamilial AF.Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 12/2012; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent sustained cardiac arrhythmia in adults, affecting >1% of general population. Atrial fibrillation is commonly associated with structural heart disease and is a major cause of significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. AF sometimes develops in a subset of young patients (e.g. aged ≤60 years), with no evidence of associated cardiopulmonary or other comorbid disease (including hypertension), and has been referred to as 'lone AF'. The latter generally has a favourable prognosis; the prognostic and therapeutic implications of an accurate identification of patients with truly lone AF (that is, truly at low risk of complications), if any, would be of the utmost importance. The true prevalence of lone AF is unknown, varying between 1.6% and 30%, depending on the particular study population. Nonetheless, novel risk factors for AF, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, sleep apnea, alcohol consumption, endurance sports, anger, hostility, subclinical atherosclerosis and others, have been increasingly recognised. Also, various underlying pathophysiological mechanisms predisposing to AF, including increased atrial stretch, structural and electrophysiological alterations, autonomic imbalance, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and genetic predisposition, have been proposed. The growing evidence of these diverse (and numerous) pathogenic mechanisms and factors related to AF inevitably raises the question of whether 'lone AF' does exist at all. In this review article, we summarise the current knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course and treatment of patients with so-called 'lone AF' and outline emerging insights into its pathogenesis and the potential therapeutic implications of a diagnosis of lone AF.International Journal of Clinical Practice 01/2011; 65(4):446-57. · 2.41 Impact Factor