Article

Identification of a Human Heme Exporter that Is Essential for Erythropoiesis

Department of Medicine/Hematology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 33.12). 10/2004; 118(6):757-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2004.08.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT FLVCR, a member of the major facilitator superfamily of transporter proteins, is the cell surface receptor for feline leukemia virus, subgroup C. Retroviral interference with FLVCR display results in a loss of erythroid progenitors (colony-forming units-erythroid, CFU-E) and severe anemia in cats. In this report, we demonstrate that human FLVCR exports cytoplasmic heme and hypothesize that human FLVCR is required on developing erythroid cells to protect them from heme toxicity. Inhibition of FLVCR in K562 cells decreases heme export, impairs their erythroid maturation and leads to apoptosis. FLVCR is upregulated on CFU-E, indicating that heme export is important in primary cells at this stage. Studies of FLVCR expression in cell lines suggest this exporter also impacts heme trafficking in intestine and liver. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a mammalian heme transporter.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Brent L Wood, Jul 07, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
125 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium infection during gestation may lead to severe clinical manifestations including abortion, stillbirth, intrauterine growth retardation, and low birth weight. Mechanisms underlying such poor pregnancy outcomes are still unclear. In the animal model of severe placental malaria (PM), in utero fetal death frequently occurs and mothers often succumb to infection before or immediately after delivery. Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes (IEs) continuously accumulate in the placenta, where they are then phagocytosed by fetal-derived placental cells, namely trophoblasts. Inside the phagosomes, disruption of IEs leads to the release of non-hemoglobin bound heme, which is subsequently catabolized by heme oxygenase-1 into carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and labile iron. Fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms operate to maintain iron homeostasis, preventing the deleterious effect of iron-induced oxidative stress. Our preliminary results demonstrate that iron overload in trophoblasts of P. berghei-infected placenta is associated with fetal death. Placentas which supported normally developing embryos showed no iron accumulation within the trophoblasts. Placentas from dead fetuses showed massive iron accumulation, which was associated with parasitic burden. Here we present preliminary data suggesting that disruption of iron homeostasis in trophoblasts during the course of PM is a consequence of heme accumulation after intense IE engulfment. We propose that iron overload in placenta is a pathogenic component of PM, contributing to fetal death. The mechanism through which it operates still needs to be elucidated.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 07/2014; 5:155. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2014.00155
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) regulate the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism by binding to RNA stem-loop structures known as iron responsive elements (IREs) in target mRNAs. IRP binding inhibits the translation of mRNAs that contain an IRE in the 5'untranslated region of the transcripts, and increases the stability of mRNAs that contain IREs in the 3'untranslated region of transcripts. By these mechanisms, IRPs increase cellular iron absorption and decrease storage and export of iron to maintain an optimal intracellular iron balance. There are two members of the mammalian IRP protein family, IRP1 and IRP2, and they have redundant functions as evidenced by the embryonic lethality of the mice that completely lack IRP expression (Irp1 (-/-)/Irp2(-/-) mice), which contrasts with the fact that Irp1 (-/-) and Irp2 (-/-) mice are viable. In addition, Irp2 (-/-) mice also display neurodegenerative symptoms and microcytic hypochromic anemia, suggesting that IRP2 function predominates in the nervous system and erythropoietic homeostasis. Though the physiological significance of IRP1 had been unclear since Irp1 (-/-) animals were first assessed in the early 1990s, recent studies indicate that IRP1 plays an essential function in orchestrating the balance between erythropoiesis and bodily iron homeostasis. Additionally, Irp1 (-/-) mice develop pulmonary hypertension, and they experience sudden death when maintained on an iron-deficient diet, indicating that IRP1 has a critical role in the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. This review summarizes recent progress that has been made in understanding the physiological roles of IRP1 and IRP2, and further discusses the implications for clinical research on patients with idiopathic polycythemia, pulmonary hypertension, and neurodegeneration.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 06/2014; 5:124. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2014.00124
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Haem is a structural component of numerous cellular proteins which contributes significantly to iron metabolic processes in mammals but its toxicity demands that cellular levels must be tightly regulated. Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2), an ATP Binding Cassette G-member protein has been shown to possess porphyrin/haem efflux function. The current study evaluated the expression and regulation of Abcg2 mRNA and protein levels in mouse tissues involved in erythropoiesis. Abcg2 mRNA expression was enhanced in bone marrow hemopoietic progenitor cells from mice that were treated with phenylhydrazine (PHZ). Abcg2 mRNA expression was increased particularly in the extramedullary haematopoietic tissues from all the mice models with enhanced erythropoiesis. Haem oxygenase (ho1) levels tended to increase in the liver of mice with enhanced erythropoiesis and gene expression patterns differed from those observed in the spleen. Efflux of haem biosynthetic metabolites might be dependent on the relative abundance of Abcg2 or ho1 during erythropoiesis. Abcg2 appears to act principally as a safety valve regulating porphyrin levels during the early stages of erythropoiesis and its role in systemic haem metabolism and erythrophagocytosis, in particular, awaits further clarification.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 06/2014; 5:135. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2014.00135