Gender differences in response to sertraline pharmacotherapy in Type A alcohol dependence.
ABSTRACT We previously established that Babor Type A "lower-risk/severity" alcoholics (n = 55) had better treatment response to fourteen weeks of sertraline (200 mg/day) than placebo, a finding not present for Type B "higher-risk/severity" alcoholics (n = 45). This exploratory study extended these results by examining the original sample for gender differences in response to sertraline pharmacotherapy. Type A alcoholic men, but not Type A alcoholic women, had consistently better outcomes with sertraline compared to placebo on several common drinking measures: time to relapse, days drinking, days drinking heavily, drinks per drinking day, and number of those continually abstinent. There were no significant differences in drinking with sertraline compared to placebo in Type B alcoholic men or women.
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol use disorders (AUD) continue to be a concerning health issue worldwide. Harmful alcohol use leads to 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide. Multiple options exist for the management of dependence on alcohol, not all of which are approved by drug-regulating agencies. Current practice in treating AUD does not reflect the diversity of pharmacologic options that have potential to provide benefit, and guidance for clinicians is limited. Few medications are approved for treatment of AUD, and these have exhibited small and/or inconsistent effects in broad patient populations with diverse drinking patterns. The need for continued research into the treatment of this disease is evident in order to provide patients with more specific and effective options. This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms of AUD that are amenable to treatment and drug therapies that target pathophysiological conditions of AUD to reduce drinking. In addition, current literature on pharmacologic (both approved and non-approved) treatment options for AUD offered in the United States and elsewhere are reviewed. The aim is to inform clinicians regarding the options for alcohol abuse treatment, keeping in mind that not all treatments are completely successful in reducing craving or heavy drinking or increasing abstinence.01/2014; 5:1-12. DOI:10.2147/SAR.S37907
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ABSTRACT: Background One hypothesis suggests that the differential response to ondansetron- and serotonin-specific re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be due to a functional polymorphism of the 5′-HTTLPR promoter region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). The LL 5′-HTTLPR genotype is postulated to be specifically sensitive to the effects of ondansetron with SS/SL 5′-HTTLPR genotypes sensitive to SSRIs. This study tests this hypothesis by matching nontreatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals with LL genotype to ondansetron and SS/SL genotypes to the SSRI sertraline, and mismatching them assessing naturalistic and bar–laboratory alcohol drinking.Methods Seventy-seven AD individuals were randomized to 1 of 2 counterbalanced arms to receive sertraline 200 mg/d or ondansetron 0.5 mg/d for 3 weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE) and then received placebo for 3 weeks followed by a second ASAE. Individuals then received the alternate drug for 3 weeks followed by a third ASAE. Drinks per drinking day (DDD with drinks in standard drinking units) for 7 days prior to each ASAE and milliliters consumed during each ASAE were the primary outcomes.ResultsFifty-five participants completed the study. The genotype × order interaction was significant, F(1, 47) = 8.42, p = 0.006, for DDD. Three analyses of covariance were conducted for DDD during the week before each ASAE. Ondansetron compared to sertraline resulted in a significant reduction in DDD during the week before the first, F(1, 47) = 7.64, p = 0.008, but not the third ASAE. There was no difference in milliliters consumed during each ASAE.Conclusions This study modestly supports the hypothesis that ondansetron may reduce DDD in AD individuals with the LL genotype as measured naturalistically. By contrast, there was no support that ondansetron reduces drinking during the ASAEs or that sertraline reduces alcohol use in individuals who have SS/SL genotypes. We provide limited support that ondansetron may reduce drinking in nontreatment-seeking individuals with the LL genotype.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 04/2014; DOI:10.1111/acer.12410 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender-specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200 mg/day of sertraline or 0.5 mg/day of ondansetron for 3 weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for 3 weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for 3 weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7 days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e., sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a 3-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4 ≥ 7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4 < 7 repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad libitum during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions may be essential to successfully treat alcohol dependence.Alcohol 09/2014; 48(6). DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2014.04.005 · 2.04 Impact Factor