Gender differences in response to sertraline pharmacotherapy in Type A alcohol dependence.
ABSTRACT We previously established that Babor Type A "lower-risk/severity" alcoholics (n = 55) had better treatment response to fourteen weeks of sertraline (200 mg/day) than placebo, a finding not present for Type B "higher-risk/severity" alcoholics (n = 45). This exploratory study extended these results by examining the original sample for gender differences in response to sertraline pharmacotherapy. Type A alcoholic men, but not Type A alcoholic women, had consistently better outcomes with sertraline compared to placebo on several common drinking measures: time to relapse, days drinking, days drinking heavily, drinks per drinking day, and number of those continually abstinent. There were no significant differences in drinking with sertraline compared to placebo in Type B alcoholic men or women.
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ABSTRACT: Access to specialty alcoholism treatment in rural environments is limited and new treatment approaches are needed. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of naltrexone alone and in combination with sertraline among Alaska Natives and other Alaskans living in rural settings. An exploratory aim examined whether the Asn40Asp polymorphism of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) predicted response to naltrexone, as had been reported in Caucasians. Randomized, controlled trial enrolling 101 Alaskans with alcohol dependence, including 68 American Indians/Alaska Natives. Participants received 16 weeks of either (1) placebo (placebo naltrexone + placebo sertraline), (2) naltrexone monotherapy (50 mg naltrexone + sertraline placebo) and (3) naltrexone + sertraline (100 mg) plus nine sessions of medical management and supportive advice. Primary outcomes included Time to First Heavy Drinking Day and Total Abstinence. Naltrexone monotherapy demonstrated significantly higher total abstinence (35%) compared with placebo (12%, p = 0027) and longer, but not statistically different, Time to First Heavy Drinking Day (p = 0.093). On secondary measures, naltrexone compared with placebo demonstrated significant improvements in percent days abstinent (p = 0.024) and drinking-related consequences (p = 0.02). Combined sertraline and naltrexone did not differ from naltrexone alone. The pattern of findings was generally similar for the American Indian/Alaska Native subsample. Naltrexone treatment response was significant within the group of 75 individuals who were homozygous for OPRM1 Asn40 allele. There was a small number of Asp40 carriers, precluding statistical testing of the effect of this allele on response. Naltrexone can be used effectively to treat alcoholism in remote and rural communities, with evidence of benefit for American Indians and Alaska Natives. New models of care incorporating pharmacotherapy could reduce important health disparities related to alcoholism.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 08/2008; 32(7):1271-83. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00682.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occurs with alcohol use disorders. This study investigated the use of sertraline, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in treating co-occurring symptoms of alcohol dependence and PTSD. A total of 94 individuals with current alcohol dependence and PTSD were randomly assigned to receive sertraline (150 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Post hoc cluster analysis of baseline characteristics was used to define subgroups of participants. There was a significant decrease in alcohol use during the trial in both the sertraline and the placebo groups. Cluster analysis revealed significant medication group by cluster interactions for alcohol-related outcomes. Sertraline-treated participants with less severe alcohol dependence and early-onset PTSD had significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (p < 0.001). For participants with more severe alcohol dependence and later onset PTSD, the placebo group had significantly greater decreases in drinks per drinking day (p < 0.01) and average number of drinks consumed per day (p < 0.05). There may be subtypes of alcohol-dependent individuals who respond differently to serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Further investigation of differential responders may lead to improvements in the pharmacological treatment of co-occurring alcohol dependence and PTSD.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 04/2005; 29(3):395-401. DOI:10.1097/01.ALC.0000156129.98265.57 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol use disorders (AUD) continue to be a concerning health issue worldwide. Harmful alcohol use leads to 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide. Multiple options exist for the management of dependence on alcohol, not all of which are approved by drug-regulating agencies. Current practice in treating AUD does not reflect the diversity of pharmacologic options that have potential to provide benefit, and guidance for clinicians is limited. Few medications are approved for treatment of AUD, and these have exhibited small and/or inconsistent effects in broad patient populations with diverse drinking patterns. The need for continued research into the treatment of this disease is evident in order to provide patients with more specific and effective options. This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms of AUD that are amenable to treatment and drug therapies that target pathophysiological conditions of AUD to reduce drinking. In addition, current literature on pharmacologic (both approved and non-approved) treatment options for AUD offered in the United States and elsewhere are reviewed. The aim is to inform clinicians regarding the options for alcohol abuse treatment, keeping in mind that not all treatments are completely successful in reducing craving or heavy drinking or increasing abstinence.01/2014; 5:1-12. DOI:10.2147/SAR.S37907