Memory self-awareness and memory self-monitoring following severe closed-head injury
ABSTRACT To examine the accuracy of memory self-awareness and memory self-monitoring abilities in participants with severe closed-head injury (CHI).
A performance-prediction paradigm was used to evaluate meta-memory abilities in 31 participants with severe CHI (>1 year post-injury) and 31 controls. To assess memory self-awareness, before completing story recall, visual reproduction and list learning memory tasks, participants predicted the amount of information they would remember for each task. Memory self-monitoring was evaluated by examining participants' ability to increase the accuracy of their predictions following experience with each memory task.
Although participants with CHI exhibited poorer recall than controls, they were equally aware of how differing task demands influence recall. They also successfully modified their predictions following task exposure.
Meta-memory was better preserved than actual memory performance. It may be possible to build on meta-memory skills to help patients with CHI more consistently use strategies that aid memory performance.
- SourceAvailable from: stir.ac.uk[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: The hippocampus and corpus callosum have been shown to be vulnerable in head injury. Various neuroimaging modalities and quantitative measurement techniques have been employed to investigate pathological changes in these structures. Cognitive and behavioural deficiencies have also been well documented in head injury. Aims: The aim of this research project was to investigate structural changes in the hippocampus and corpus callosum. Two different quantitative methods were used to measure physical changes and neuropsychological assessment was performed to determine cognitive and behavioural deficit. It was also intended to investigate the relationship between structural change and neuropsychology at 1 and 6 months post injury. Method: Forty-seven patients with head injury (ranging from mild to severe) had undergone a battery of neuropsychological tests and an MRI scan at 1 and 6 months post injury. T1-weighted MRI scans were obtained and analysis of hippocampus and corpus callosum was performed using region-of-interest techniques and voxel-based morphometry which also included comparison to 18 healthy volunteers. The patients completed neuropsychological assessment at 1 and 6 months post injury and data obtained was analysed with respect to each assessment and with structural data to determine cognitive decline and correlation with neuroanatomy. Results: Voxel-based morphometry illustrated reduced whole scan signal differences between patients and controls and changes in patients between 1 and 6 months post injury. Reduced grey matter concentration was also found using voxel-based morphometry and segmented images between patients and controls. A number of neuropsychological aspects were related to injury severity and correlations with neuroanatomy were present. Voxel-based morphometry provided a greater number of associations than region-of-interest analysis. No longitudinal changes were found in the hippocampus or corpus callosum using region-of-interest methodology or voxel-based morphometry. Conclusions: Decreased grey matter concentration identified with voxel-based morphometry illustrated that structural deficit was present in the head injured patients and does not change between 1 and 6 months. Voxel-based morphometry appears more sensitive for detecting structural changes after head injury than region- of-interest methods. Although the majority of patients had suffered mild head injury, cognitive and neurobehavioural deficits were evidenced by a substantial number of patients reporting increased anxiety and depression levels. Also, the findings of relationships between reduced grey matter concentration and cognitive test scores are indicative of the effects of diffuse brain damage in the patient group.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The association between memory self-efficacy (MSE) and memory performance is highly documented in the literature. However, previous studies have produced inconsistent results, and there is no consensus on the existence of a significant link between these two variables. In order to evaluate whether or not the effect size of the MSE-memory performance relationship in healthy adults is significant and to test several theory-driven moderators, we conducted a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies. A random-effects model analysis of data from 107 relevant studies (673 effect sizes) indicated a low but significant weighted mean correlation between MSE and memory performance, r = .15, 95% CI [.13, .17]. In addition, the mean effect size was significantly moderated by the way MSE was assessed. Memory performance was more strongly related to concurrent MSE (perceived current ability to perform a given task) than it was to global MSE (perceived usual memory ability in general). Furthermore, we found marginally larger MSE-memory performance correlations when the memory situations used to assess MSE involved familiar stimuli. No effect of the method used to assess global MSE or domain MSE (memory rating vs. performance predictions) was found. The results also show that the resource demands of the memory tasks have a moderator effect, as the MSE-performance correlation is larger with free-recall and cued-recall tasks than it is with recognition tasks. Limitations (generalization issues, moderators not considered) and implications for future research are discussed.Psychological Bulletin 03/2011; 137(2):211-41. DOI:10.1037/a0022106 · 14.39 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To examine memory self-awareness abilities in individuals with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) using both 'online assessment' and 'offline assessment' methodologies. Participants were 23 individuals with TBI and 23 controls matched on age, education and sex. Online assessment of memory was assessed by comparing the predicted amount of information participants expected that they would remember following trial 1, trial 5 and a 20-minute delay with actual memory performance on list-learning and visuospatial memory tests. Offline assessment of memory involved contrasting self-ratings provided by TBI participants about their everyday memory functioning with ratings from knowledgeable informants and with performance on objective memory tests. Individuals with TBI displayed poorer recall for newly learned information than control participants, but no significant group differences emerged in the online assessment of memory self-awareness. The offline assessment comparisons similarly demonstrated that the individuals with TBI exhibited accurate awareness for their everyday memory performances. These findings suggest intact memory self-awareness following moderate-to-severe TBI during the early stages of recovery (2-10 months post-injury).Brain Injury 04/2010; 24(4):598-608. DOI:10.3109/02699051003652815 · 1.86 Impact Factor