Histology of the terminal ileum in coeliac disease.

Depts. of Gastroenterology and Histopathology, Altnagelvin Hospital, Londonderry, Northern Ireland BT47 6SB, UK.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.33). 07/2004; 39(7):665-7. DOI: 10.1080/00365520410004901
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The histological lesion of gluten sensitivity primarily affects the proximal small bowel. The purpose of this study was to assess whether there were features of gluten-sensitive enteropathy in biopsies taken from the terminal ileum during colonoscopy/ileoscopy. Specific and sensitive abnormalities might facilitate diagnosis of coeliac disease in patients undergoing colonoscopy as their initial procedure or help select those who should proceed to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsy.
Terminal ileal biopsies, taken from 30 patients with duodenal villous atrophy consistent with coeliac disease and from 60 control patients with no evidence of coeliac or inflammatory bowel disease, were reviewed blindly and compared. Biopsies were assessed for the presence or absence of villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia, and counts were made of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs).
One patient only, in the coeliac group, had partial villous atrophy with crypt hyperplasia in the terminal ileum. IEL counts were significantly higher (P< 0.005) in the coeliac group than among controls (mean per 100 enterocytes 26 versus 10). An ileal IEL count > or =25 had a sensitivity for duodenal villous atrophy (VA) of 60% and specificity of 100%.
Coeliac disease may affect the entire small bowel. Increased IEL density in the terminal ileum is associated with duodenal VA and should prompt a search for coeliac disease by serology and duodenal biopsy. Conversely, a normal IEL count does not allow the exclusion of coeliac disease with confidence.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Celiac disease occurs in about 1% of the population. Although diarrhea is the classical presentation, the diagnosis of celiac disease is frequently not considered as part of the differential diagnosis of a variety of different symptoms. It is,therefore, imperative that physicians who perform capsule endoscopy, and those who review the images, are aware of the variety of mucosa appearances inpatients who have celiac disease. In addition, studies are needed to determine the role of capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis and management of celiac disease.
    Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America 05/2006; 16(2):307-16.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In celiac disease (CD), enteropathy of the small bowel results from a T-cell-mediated reaction to gluten in the diet. In addition to gluten, other environmental and genetic factors participate in the disease pathogenesis. We have recently reported the finding of a significantly different short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile in fecal samples from children with CD compared to healthy controls reflecting an aberrant gut microflora. The aim of the present study was to make a functional evaluation of the gut microflora status in non-celiac 1st degree relatives of children with CD. Fecal samples from 76 symptom-free, non-celiac, 1st degree CD relatives and from 91 aged-matched healthy controls were analyzed for fecal tryptic activity (FTA) and a number of SCFAs. There was a significantly lower level of acetic acid and total SCFAs as well as a significantly increased level of i-butyric acid and FTA in relatives compared to healthy controls. The FTA and the SCFA profiles in fecal samples from 1st degree relatives of children with CD are different from those of healthy individuals. The implication of this observation provides insight into the pathogenesis of CD and opens up the possibility of future new diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic strategies.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2007; 42(10):1204-8. · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Both the clinical presentation and the degree of mucosal damage in coeliac disease vary greatly. In view of conflicting information as to whether the mode of presentation correlates with the degree of villous atrophy, we reviewed a large cohort of patients with coeliac disease. We correlated mode of presentation (classical, diarrhoea predominant or atypical/silent) with histology of duodenal biopsies and examined their trends over time. The cohort consisted of 499 adults, mean age 44.1 years, 68% females. The majority had silent coeliac disease (56%) and total villous atrophy (65%). There was no correlation of mode of presentation with the degree of villous atrophy (p=0.25). Sixty-eight percent of females and 58% of males had a severe villous atrophy (p=0.052). There was a significant trend over time for a greater proportion of patients presenting as atypical/silent coeliac disease and having partial villous atrophy, though the majority still had total villous atrophy. Among our patients the degree of villous atrophy in duodenal biopsies did not correlate with the mode of presentation, indicating that factors other than the degree of villous atrophy must account for diarrhoea in coeliac disease.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 02/2007; 39(1):26-9; discussion 30-2. · 3.16 Impact Factor