[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background. Pre-term birth and/or low birth weight (PTLBW) is a serious problem in developing countries. The absence of known risk factors in ∼ 50% of PTLBW cases has resulted in a continued search for other causes. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of periodontitis on pregnancy outcomes. Methods. Samples were taken from 50 pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on amniotic fluid samples obtained during amniocentesis and on subgingival plaque samples to determine the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Campylobacter rectus and Eikenella corrodens. Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing depth and clinical attachment level were evaluated. Medical records were obtained after birth. Results. Social and demographic variables were similar among the Gingivitis (G), Localized Periodontitis (LP) and Generalized Periodontitis (GP) groups. Four subjects gave birth to PTLBW neonates. Campylobacter rectus, T. forsythia, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were detected in the amniotic fluid and subgingival plaque samples of three patients who gave birth to PTLBW neonates. The amniotic fluid sample from the fourth patient was not positive for any of the tested pathogens. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the transmission of some periodontal pathogens from the oral cavity of the mother may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. The results contribute to an understanding of the association between periodontal disease and PTLBW, but further studies are required to better clarify the possible relationship.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. The aim of this study is to verify the existence of an association between maternal periodontal disease and pre-term delivery in an unselected population of post-partum Turkish women. Materials and methods. This case-control study was conducted on 100 women who gave birth in either a special or a government maternity hospital. The case group consisted of 50 mothers who had delivered an infant before 37 weeks' gestation and weighed under 2500 g. The control group included 50 mothers who had given birth to an infant with a birth weight of more than 2500 g and a gestational age of ≥37 weeks. Data of mothers and infants were collected using medical registers and questionnaires. Clinical periodontal examinations were carried out in six sites on every tooth in the mother's mouth. A participant who presented at least four teeth with one or more sites with a PPD ≥4 mm and CAL ≥3 mm at the same site was considered to have periodontal disease. Statistical methods included parametric and non-parametric tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between the cases and controls with regard to periodontal disease and pre-term delivery (OR = 1.48; 95% CI = 0.54-4.06). Conclusion. The findings indicated that maternal periodontitis was not a possible risk factor for pre-term delivery. Further studies with additional clinical trials are needed to explore the possible relationship between periodontal disease and pre-term birth.
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