"They found significantly higher PI and papillary bleeding index scores in the pre-term birth group compared with the full-term birth group. Holbrook et al.  reported no link between low-grade periodontal disease and pre-term birth in a healthy Caucasian population. In our study population, periodontal disease severity was low among Caucasian women with a high education level and good healthcare. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background. Pre-term birth and/or low birth weight (PTLBW) is a serious problem in developing countries. The absence of known risk factors in ∼ 50% of PTLBW cases has resulted in a continued search for other causes. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of periodontitis on pregnancy outcomes. Methods. Samples were taken from 50 pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on amniotic fluid samples obtained during amniocentesis and on subgingival plaque samples to determine the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Campylobacter rectus and Eikenella corrodens. Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing depth and clinical attachment level were evaluated. Medical records were obtained after birth. Results. Social and demographic variables were similar among the Gingivitis (G), Localized Periodontitis (LP) and Generalized Periodontitis (GP) groups. Four subjects gave birth to PTLBW neonates. Campylobacter rectus, T. forsythia, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were detected in the amniotic fluid and subgingival plaque samples of three patients who gave birth to PTLBW neonates. The amniotic fluid sample from the fourth patient was not positive for any of the tested pathogens. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the transmission of some periodontal pathogens from the oral cavity of the mother may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. The results contribute to an understanding of the association between periodontal disease and PTLBW, but further studies are required to better clarify the possible relationship.
") especially when a non- significant association is found (Holbrook et al. 2004). In the present study, the sample size was designed to obtain a power of 90% and an OR of 2, recruiting 20% more women than required for this purpose to compensate for any possible loss of subjects to the study. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the association between periodontitis and the incidence of preterm birth (PB), low birth weight (LBW) and preterm low birth weight (PLBW) MATERIAL AND METHODS: One thousand and ninety-six women were enrolled. Periodontal data, pregnancy outcome variables and information on other factors that may influence adverse pregnancy outcomes were collected. Data were analysed using a logistic regression model.
The incidence of PB and LBW was 6.6% and 6.0%, respectively. The incidence of PLBW was 3.3%. PB was related to mother's age, systemic diseases, onset of prenatal care, previous PBs, complications of pregnancy, type of delivery, the presence of untreated caries and the presence of periodontitis (odds ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.88). LBW was related to mother's smoking habits, ethnicity, systemic diseases, previous LBW babies, complications of pregnancy and type of delivery. PLBW was related to mother's age, onset of prenatal care, systemic diseases, previous LBW babies, complications of pregnancy and type of delivery.
The factors involved in many cases of adverse pregnancy outcomes have still not being identified, although systemic infections may play a role. This study found a modest association between periodontitis and PB. Further research is required to establish whether periodontitis is a risk factor for PB and/or LBW.
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