Ovarian mucinous borderline tumors are divided into two morphologic groups: endocervical-like and intestinal type, the latter comprising the majority of cases. Thirty-one endocervical-like ovarian mucinous borderline tumors (ELMBTs) were reviewed and evaluated for the presence of intraepithelial carcinoma and microinvasion. Intraepithelial carcinoma was identified in 13% and stromal microinvasion in 23% of cases. All but 1 patient were stage I. Follow-up information was available for 21 patients; all were alive with no evidence of disease at a mean follow-up interval of 5.7 years. Six of 8 patients with ELMBT containing foci of microinvasion and/or intraepithelial carcinoma and for whom follow-up was available were alive with no evidence of disease at a mean follow-up interval of 6.6 years. These results indicate that ELMBTs, specifically those exhibiting intraepithelial carcinoma and microinvasion, are tumors associated with an excellent prognosis. The frequency of occurrence and criteria for the diagnosis of intraepithelial carcinoma and microinvasion in ELMBT are discussed.
"In fact, many of these more closely resemble gastric or pancreaticobiliary (upper gastrointestinal) mucinous neoplasms . A much more uncommon müllerian (endocervical) type of ovarian mucinous carcinoma and borderline tumor also exists  . While borderline mucinous neoplasms of müllerian type have been well described, malignant müllerian mucinous tumors are extremely uncommon. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type I ovarian tumors, where precursor lesions in the ovary have clearly been described, include endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, low grade serous, and transitional cell carcinomas, while type II tumors, where such lesions have not been described clearly and tumors may develop de novo from the tubal and/or ovarian surface epithelium, comprise high grade serous carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. The carcinogenesis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (CCC) arising from endometriotic cysts is significantly influenced by the free iron concentration, which is associated with cancer development through the induction of persistent oxidative stress. A subset of mucinous carcinomas develop in association with ovarian teratomas; however, the majority of these tumors do not harbor any teratomatous component. Other theories of their origin include mucinous metaplasia of surface epithelial inclusions, endometriosis, and Brenner tumors. Low grade serous carcinomas are thought to evolve in a stepwise fashion from benign serous cystadenoma to a serous borderline tumor (SBT). With regard to high grade serous carcinoma, the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) of the junction of the fallopian tube epithelium with the mesothelium of the tubal serosa, termed the "tubal peritoneal junction" (TPJ), undergo malignant transformation due to their location, and metastasize to the nearby ovary and surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Other theories of their origin include the ovarian hilum cells.
BioMed Research International 04/2014; 2014(5-6):934261. DOI:10.1155/2014/934261 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Borderline tumors (also designated as tumors of low malignant potential) show histologic and cytologic features that are intermediate between those of clearly benign and clearly malignant tumors of the same cell type(s); they exhibit epithelial proliferation greater than that seen in their benign counterparts but an absence of destructive invasion of the stroma, and are associated with a much better prognosis than that of ovarian carcinomas. Although the word «borderline» may suggest uncertainty, it accurately describes the ambiguous histologic and biologic features of these neoplasms and remains the most appropriate term. The clinicopathologic features of the most common types of ovarian borderline tumors are presented in this review.
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