From the archives of the AFIP: Benign musculoskeletal lipomatous lesions

University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Radiographics (Impact Factor: 2.6). 09/2004; 24(5):1433-66. DOI: 10.1148/rg.245045120
Source: PubMed


Benign lipomatous lesions involving soft tissue are common musculoskeletal masses that are classified into nine distinct diagnoses: lipoma, lipomatosis, lipomatosis of nerve, lipoblastoma or lipoblastomatosis, angiolipoma, myolipoma of soft tissue, chondroid lipoma, spindle cell lipoma and pleomorphic lipoma, and hibernoma. Soft-tissue lipoma accounts for almost 50% of all soft-tissue tumors. Radiologic evaluation is diagnostic in up to 71% of cases. These lesions are identical to subcutaneous fat on computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images and may contain thin septa. Lipomatosis represents a diffuse overgrowth of mature fat affecting either subcutaneous tissue, muscle or nerve, and imaging is needed to evaluate lesion extent. Lipoblastoma is a tumor of immature fat occurring in young children, and imaging features may reveal a mixture of fat and nonadipose tissue. Angiolipoma, myolipoma, and chondroid lipoma are rare lipomatous lesions that are infrequently imaged. Spindle cell and pleomorphic lipoma appear as a subcutaneous lipomatous mass in the posterior neck or shoulder, with frequent nonadipose components. Hibernoma appears as a lipomatous mass with serpentine vascular elements. Benign lipomatous lesions affecting bone, joint, or tendon sheath include intraosseous lipoma, parosteal lipoma, liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor, discrete lipoma of joint or tendon sheath, and lipoma arborescens. Intraosseous and parosteal lipoma have a pathognomonic CT or MR appearance, with fat in the marrow space or on the bone surface, respectively. Liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor is a rare intermixed histologic lesion commonly located in the medullary canal of the intertrochanteric femur. Benign lipomatous lesions may occur focally in a joint or tendon sheath or with diffuse villonodular proliferation in the synovium (lipoma arborescens) and are diagnosed based on location and identification of fat. Understanding the spectrum of appearances of the various benign musculoskeletal lipomatous lesions improves radiologic assessment and is vital for optimal patient management.

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    • "Lipoblastoma is commonly located in the subcutaneous or superficial soft tissue of the extremity and clinically may simulate lipoma [7, 10]. Lipoblastomas are frequently asymptomatic and painless, except when they impinge on surrounding structures, causing symptoms by their mass effect [3, 4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoblastoma is a benign lesion of immature fat cells that is found almost exclusively in pediatric population. This tumor is a rare tumor that occurs in infancy and early childhood, accounting for less than 1% of all childhood neoplasm. It is more common in male than in female and often presents as an asymptomatic, rapidly enlarging, soft lobular mass on the extremity. Although benign, it gives great difficulty in its management, due to its extensions into different facial planes, especially in lipoblastomatosis. Thus, complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice.
    09/2014; 2014:582876. DOI:10.1155/2014/582876
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    • "However, Ohguri et al. showed that septal enhancement in contrast-enhanced MRI allows the differentiation of liposarcoma [3]; they found moderate or marked septal enhancement in 25% and 75%, respectively, of well-differentiated liposarcomas [8]. Therefore, soft lipomatous lesions with thin septa that are not enhanced on MRI could be diagnosed as lipoma [3,9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Vulvar lipoma is a rare tumor localization and only a few cases have been reported. The clinical characteristics of vulvar lipoma are well known. However, it is important to distinguish lipomas from liposarcomas. We report a case of vulvar lipoma and discuss its clinical features, including diagnostic aspects, with emphasis on histopathological evaluation of all excised lesions. We also report and discuss patient management and treatment outcomes. Case presentation We report the case of a 27-year-old Moroccan woman. Our patient presented with a painless and slow-growing right vulvar mass that had evolved over one year, which had suddenly become uncomfortable when walking. A physical examination revealed a single soft and pasty mass in her left labium majus, which could be mobilized under her skin towards her mons pubis. The largest dimension of the mass measured 6cm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a homogenous hyperintense mass with a well-defined contour in her left labium majus; a fat-suppressed magnetic resonance image demonstrated a marked signal intensity decrease. The mass was completely removed surgically. A histological examination revealed a circumscribed benign tumor composed of mature adipocytes, confirming the diagnosis of vulvar lipoma. Conclusion Vulvar lipomas must be differentiated from liposarcomas, which demonstrate very similar clinical and imaging profiles. The final diagnosis should be based on histopathological evaluation. A precise diagnosis should allow for appropriate surgical treatment.
    Journal of Medical Case Reports 06/2014; 8(1):203. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-8-203
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    • "MR typically shows a fusiform swelling representing the enlarged nerve with serpinginous, “spaghetti” or “cable”-like appearance, representing the low-signal axons surrounded by fatty tissue [24, 25] (Fig. 7). Management is usually conservative as surgical resection is almost always accompanied by neurologic morbidity [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Focal hand lesions are commonly encountered in clinical practice and are often benign. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the imaging modality of choice in evaluating these lesions as it can accurately determine the nature of the lesion, enhancement pattern and exact location in relation to surrounding tissues. However, while MR features of various soft tissue lesions in the hand have been well described, it is often still difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. We review the MR imaging features of a variety of focal hand lesions presenting at our institution and propose a classification into “benign”, “intermediate grade” (histologically benign but locally aggressive with potential for recurrence) and frankly “malignant” lesions based on MR findings. This aims to narrow down differential diagnoses and helps in further management of the lesion, preoperative planning and, in cases of primary malignancy, local staging. Teaching Points • Hand lesions are often benign and MR is essential as part of the workup. • MR features of various hand lesions are well described but are often non-specific. • Certain MR features may help for the diagnosis but histological examination is usually required. • We aim to classify hand lesions based on MR features such as margin, enhancement and bony involvement. • Classifying these lesions can help narrow down differential diagnoses and aid management.
    Insights into Imaging 05/2014; 5(3). DOI:10.1007/s13244-014-0334-4
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