Tyrosine-O-sulfated peptides were studied by nanoESI Q-TOF mass spectrometry and were found to exhibit an abundant loss of SO3 in positive ion mode under the usually nonfragmenting conditions of survey spectrum acquisition. A new strategy for the detection of tyrosine-O-sulfated peptides in total protein digests was designed based on exhaustive product ion scanning at the collision offset conditions typical for the recording of survey spectra (minimum collision offset). From these data, Q-TOF neutral loss scans for loss of 80/z and Q-TOF precursor ions scans were extracted. The specificity of this approach for analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation was tested using a tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin spiked with sulfated hirudin (1:1 and 1000:1 molar ratio of BSA to sulfated hirudin, respectively) and using an in-solution digest of the recombinant extracellular domain of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (ECD-TSHr). For both examples, the combination of in silico neutral loss scans for 80/z and subsequent in silico precursor ion scans resulted in a specific identification of sulfated peptides. In the analysis of recombinant ECD-TSHr, a doubly sulfated peptide could be identified in this way. Surprisingly, approximately 1/4 of the product ion spectra acquired from the tryptic digest of ECD-TSHr at minimum collision offset exhibited sequence-specific ions suitable for peptide identification. Complementary ion pairs were frequently observed, which either were b2/y(max-2) pairs or were induced by cleavage N-terminal to proline. MS/MS analysis at minimum collision offset followed by extraction of neutral loss and precursor ion scans is ideally suited for highly sensitive detection of analyte ions which exhibit facile gas-phase decomposition reactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integration of inorganic sulfate into biological molecules plays an important role in biological systems and is directly involved in the instigation of diseases. Protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS) is a common post-translational modification that was first reported in the literature fifty years ago. However, the significance of PTS under physiological conditions and its link to diseases have just begun to be appreciated in recent years. PTS is catalyzed by tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST) through transfer of an activated sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate to tyrosine in a variety of proteins and peptides. Currently, only a small fraction of sulfated proteins is known and the understanding of the biological sulfation mechanisms is still in progress. In this review, we give an introductory and selective brief review of PTS and then summarize the basic biochemical information including the activity and the preparation of TPST, methods for the determination of PTS, and kinetics and reaction mechanism of TPST. This information is fundamental for the further exploration of the function of PTS that induces protein-protein interactions and the subsequent biochemical and physiological reactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Formation of S-carbamidomethylmethionine (camMet) occurs as a side reaction during cysteine alkylation with iodoacetamide (IAA). In collision-induced dissociation, peptides with camMet show an abundant neutral loss of 2-(methylthio)acetamide (C3H7NOS = 105.025 Da) at moderate collision offset values which are similar to those optimal for loss of phosphoric acid (H3PO4 = 97.977 Da). Neutral loss analysis is used for spotting of phosphopeptides which contain phosphoserine (pSer) or phosphothreonine (pThr) residues. In the case where precursor ions cannot be accurately assigned in the survey spectrum (e.g. due to low ion abundance or signal overlap), the mass accuracy of a neutral loss tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis depends on the precursor ion isolation window. For the charge states 2+, 3+ or 4+, a typical 3.5 Da precursor isolation window results in neutral loss windows of 7, 10.5 or 14 Da, respectively. Consequently, neutral loss of 105 Da from alkylated methionine residues can mimic the phosphoserine/phosphothreonine-specific neutral loss of 98 Da. In the evaluation of quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) parent ion scan data for neutral loss of H3PO4, this interference was frequently observed. It is illustrated in this study using the analysis of ovalbumin phosphorylation as an example. The +80 Da molecular weight shift connected with phosphorylation at serine or threonine may also be mimicked by carbamidomethylation of methionine through a combination with sodium adduction (+57 Da +22 Da = +79 Da). For highly sensitive neutral loss analysis of serine and threonine phosphorylation, careful data inspection is recommended if reduction and alkylation by IAA is employed.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 06/2005; 19(12):1709-16. DOI:10.1002/rcm.1976 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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