Semicarbazide was previously found in foods that were in contact with rubber gaskets foamed at high temperatures with a blowing agent azodicarbonamide. Because azodicarbonamide is an approved flour additive in certain countries, we set out to ascertain if semicarbazide is formed during the baking process from flours containing that additive. The levels of semicarbazide in baking flour treated with azodicarbonamide and bread baked from such flours were determined by isotope dilution (13C15N2-semicarbazide) liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The samples were homogenized with HCl, extracted with n-pentane, derivatized with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, and the derivative was extracted with ethyl acetate. After solvent exchange to 10% acetonitrile in water containing 0.1% acetic acid, the samples were analyzed using a 2.1 mm x 150 mm C18 column eluted with 2 mM ammonium formate in water/methanol (40:60). Semicarbazide was formed during the dry heating of commercial azodicarbonamide-containing flours at temperatures of 150-200 degrees C reaching levels of 0.2 mg/kg. Similar levels of semicarbazide were found in the crusts of breads made from azodicarbonamide-treated flour.
"There is abundant evidence on the formation of semicarbazide (SEM) from nitrofurazone (NFZ) (McCracken et al, 2005). Recently the confidence in SEM as an unambiguous marker residue has been questioned, due to the fact that alternative sources of SEM have been identified (Becalski et al, 2004, Stadler et al, 2004, Nooman et al, 2005). Therefore, to ensure efficient and reliable control of nitrofurazone abuse, an alternative marker analyte, which can be unequivocally linked to nitrofurazone abuse, needs to be identified. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitrofuran antibiotics, employed for the treatment of bacterial diseases in livestock production, were banned from use in the European Union (EU) in 1995 due to concerns about the carcinogenicity of their residues in edible tissue. This review provides an overview of nitrofuran toxicity, metabolism, and also specific aspects of legislation surrounding their prohibition. Special attention is devoted to semicarbazide - a nitrofuran metabolite and food contaminant. Analytical procedures for nitrofuran analysis in various matrices and validation require - List of abbreviations AHD = 1-aminohydantoin; AOZ = 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone; AMOZ = 3-amino-5-morpholino-methyl-1,3-oxa- zolidinone; CCα = decision limit; CCβ = detection capability; EC = European Commission; EFSA = European Food Safety Authority; ELISA = enzyme linked immuno-adsorbent assay; ESI = electro-spray ionisation; EU = European Union; FTD = furaltadone; FZD = furazolidone; HPLC = high performance liquid chromatography; IC = inhibition concentration; LC = liquid chromatography; LOD = limit of detection; MS = mass spectrometry; NFT = nitrofurantoin; NFZ = nitrofurazone; NP = nitrophenyl; NPAHD = 3-(2-nitrobenzylidenamino)-2,4-imi- dazolidinedione); NPAMOZ = 5-(morpholinomethyl)-3-(2-nitrobenzylidenamino)-2-oxazolidinone); NPAOZ = (3-(2-nitrobenzylidenamino)-2-oxazolidinone); NPSEM = 3((2-nitrophenyl)methylene)-hydrazinecarboxamide; o-NBA = ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde; RASFF = Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed; SE = solvent extraction; SEM = semicarbazide; SPE = solid phase extraction; UV = ultraviolet
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review provides an overview of the information currently available about the presence of semicarbazide (SEM) in food. Likely sources of SEM in food matrices are summarised and discussed. Detailed information is given about the analytical methods used to determine SEM; features and drawbacks associated with them are carefully evaluated. Performance criteria characterising the analytical methods discussed are also given.
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