Effects of reality orientation therapy on elderly patients in the community.

University of Bergamo, Bérgamo, Lombardy, Italy
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics (Impact Factor: 1.53). 11/1993; 17(3):211-8. DOI: 10.1016/0167-4943(93)90052-J
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Twenty-three institutionalized subjects, confused and disoriented as to time, space and persons, were divided into two groups: the study group and the control group. The study group then participated in a 3-month period of formal Realithy Orientation Therapy (ROT). At the end of the 3 months of therapy significant differences emerged in the scores of MMSE, OSGP and GDS obtained by the two groups. Moreover, significant positive differences were observed only in the study group, comparing the tests' results before and after therapy. Even the comparison of the results obtained at the end of the sessions and 3 months after the interruption of the therapy revealed a difference in the trends that emerged for the two groups.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate in a pilot single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial the efficacy of an integrated treatment with rivastigmine transdermal patch (RTP) and cognitive stimulation (CS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients at 6-month follow-up.Methods We enrolled 90 patients with an age ≥65 years admitted to the outpatient Alzheimer's Evaluation Unit with diagnosis of AD. Patients were randomized to enter in the Group-1 (RTP + CS) or in the Group-2 (RTP). All patients at baseline and after 6 months were evaluated with the following tools: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Distress (NPI-D), and a standardized Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, including also activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Mortality risk was assessed using the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI).ResultsAt baseline no significant difference was shown between the two groups. After 6 months of follow-up, there were significant differences between Group-1 and Group-2 in: MMSE: +6.39% vs. +2.69%, CDR: +6.92% vs. +1.54%, HDRS-D = −60.7% vs. −45.8%, GDS: −60.9% vs. −7.3%, NPI: −55.2% vs. −32.7%%, NPI-D: −55.1% vs. −18.6%, ADL: +13.88% vs. +5.95%, IADL: +67.59% vs. +18.28%, MNA: +12.02% vs. +5.91%, and MPI: −29.03% vs. −12.90%.Conclusion The integrated treatment of RTP with CS in AD patients for 6 months improved significantly cognition, depressive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, functional status, and mortality risk in comparison with a group of AD patients receiving only RTP. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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    BMJ Open 01/2015; 5(4):e005247. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005247 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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