Compared to the neurologic morbidity of stroke and cognitive dysfunction, "other" neurologic complications involving injuries to the brachial plexus, phrenic nerve, cranial nerves, other peripheral nerves, as well as the visual pathways, have been disproportionately underrepresented in the cardiac surgery and anesthesiology literature. These injuries are often missed in the early postoperative period when attention is focused principally on recovery from the acute trespass of cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. However, when these problems do become apparent, they can cause considerable discomfort and morbidity. An overview of the current concepts of injury mechanisms/etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and when possible, prevention of these injuries is presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary form only given, as follows. There has been considerable interest in applying rf plasma to industrial applications such as etching, deposition, sputtering, surface cleaning, and ion implantation for thin film processing. In the effort of making rf plasma sources, the main concerns are the density and energy distribution of the electrons. These are closely related to the frequency and power of the rf source. Thus microwaves have long been considered the ideal source. In this work, a microwave plasma source is designed for the application of chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. Microwaves provided by a magnetron (2.45 GHz 300 W) are fed into a cylindrical cavity through a loop antenna. The cavity can be adjusted to excite the TM011 to TM013 modes. Using a large cavity (TM013 mode) to reduce the power density, the microwave coupling into the cavity is expected to be more efficient. However, in order to use microwave power effectively, only a small portion of the cavity separated by a glass enclosure to keep the vacuum pressure is used as the reaction chamber. Thus the plasma is produced only in the reaction chamber, and the effect of the plasma loading on the microwave coupling is also minimized. The experimental results indeed show that a very stable plasma can be produced, over a large range of incident power levels. A Langmuir probe is inserted to measure the plasma characteristics
IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science 01/1996; DOI:10.1109/PLASMA.1996.550931
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) after cardiovascular surgery can affect the postoperative outcome. The aim of the present study was to clarify the incidence of VCP after cardiovascular surgery and the relationship between the surgery characteristics and the risk of VCP.
A total of 987 consecutive patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery (cardiac, n = 895; aortic, n = 92) were enrolled. We retrospectively assessed the incidence and the risk of VCP according to the length and types of surgery and the details of each VCP case and compared them between the aortic and the nonaortic group.
Twenty-three patients (2.3%: cardiac, n =15; aortic, n = 8) were expertly diagnosed with VCP (left, n = 19; right, n = 2; bilateral, n = 2). In the multivariate analysis, the risk for VCP increased with the duration of the operation (odds ratio [OR], 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7 to 11.4), and aortic procedures (OR, 5.6, CI 2.3 to 13.5) exhibited higher risk compared with coronary artery bypass grafting. Among the VCP cases, the incidence of poor outcomes (ie, bilateral VCP, repeated airway treatment, death within 6 months) was significantly higher in the aortic group (p = 0.016). All patients that were intubated for longer than 100 hours exhibited poor outcomes.
Aortic procedures and prolonged operation increase the risk of VCP. Severe VCP tended to be associated with aortic surgery and intubation for more than 100 hours.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 07/2007; 83(6):2147-52. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2007.02.008 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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