Targeted disruption of the 3p12 gene, Dutt1/Robo1, predisposes mice to lung adenocarcinomas and lymphomas with methylation of the gene promoter.
ABSTRACT The DUTT1 gene is located on human chromosome 3, band p12, within a region of nested homozygous deletions in breast and lung tumors. It is therefore a candidate tumor suppressor gene in humans and is the homologue (ROBO1) of the Drosophila axonal guidance receptor gene, Roundabout. We have shown previously that mice with a targeted homozygous deletion within the Dutt1/Robo1 gene generally die at birth due to incomplete lung development: survivors die within the first year of life with epithelial bronchial hyperplasia as a common feature. Because Dutt1/Robo1 heterozygous mice develop normally, we have determined their tumor susceptibility. Mice with a targeted deletion within one Dutt1/Robo1 allele spontaneously develop lymphomas and carcinomas in their second year of life with a 3-fold increase in incidence compared with controls: invasive lung adenocarcinomas are by far the predominant carcinoma. In addition to the mutant allele, loss of heterozygosity analysis indicates that these tumors retain the structurally normal allele but with substantial methylation of the gene's promoter. Substantial reduction of Dutt1/Robo1 protein expression in tumors is observed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. This suggests that Dutt1/Robo1 is a classic tumor suppressor gene requiring inactivation of both alleles to elicit tumorigenesis in these mice.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that the tumour cells of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) exhibit recurrent chromosome abnormalities. These genetic changes are broadly assumed to lead to changes in gene expression which are important for the pathogenesis of this tumour. However, this assumption has yet to be formally tested at a global level. Therefore a genome wide analysis of chromosome copy number and gene expression was performed in tumour cells micro-dissected from the same NPC biopsies. Cellular tumour suppressor and tumour-promoting genes (TSG, TPG) and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-encoded oncogenes were examined. The EBV-encoded genome maintenance protein EBNA1, along with the putative oncogenes LMP1, LMP2 and BARF1 were expressed in the majority of NPCs that were analysed. Significant downregulation of expression in an average of 76 cellular TSGs per tumour was found, whilst a per-tumour average of 88 significantly upregulated, TPGs occurred. The expression of around 60% of putative TPGs and TSGs was both up-and down-regulated in different types of cancer, suggesting that the simplistic classification of genes as TSGs or TPGs may not be entirely appropriate and that the concept of context-dependent onco-suppressors may be more extensive than previously recognised. No significant enrichment of TPGs within regions of frequent genomic gain was seen but TSGs were significantly enriched within regions of frequent genomic loss. It is suggested that loss of the FHIT gene may be a driver of NPC tumourigenesis. Notwithstanding the association of TSGs with regions of genomic loss, on a gene by gene basis and excepting homozygous deletions and high-level amplification, there is very little correlation between chromosomal copy number aberrations and expression levels of TSGs and TPGs in NPC.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e41055. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is genetically characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation and a high number of secondary chromosomal alterations. The contribution of DNA methylation to MCL lymphomagenesis is not well known. We sought to identify epigenetically silenced genes in these tumours that might have clinical relevance. To identify potential methylated genes in MCL we initially investigated seven MCL cell lines treated with epigenetic drugs and gene expression microarray profiling. The methylation status of selected candidate genes was validated by a quantitative assay and subsequently analyzed in a series of primary MCL (n = 38). After pharmacological reversion we identified 252 potentially methylated genes. The methylation analysis of a subset of these genes (n = 25) in the MCL cell lines and normal B lymphocytes confirmed that 80% of them were methylated in the cell lines but not in normal lymphocytes. The subsequent analysis in primary MCL identified five genes (SOX9, HOXA9, AHR, NR2F2, and ROBO1) frequently methylated in these tumours. The gene methylation events tended to occur in the same primary neoplasms and correlated with higher proliferation, increased number of chromosomal abnormalities, and shorter survival of the patients. We have identified a set of genes whose methylation degree and gene expression levels correlate with aggressive clinicopathological features of MCL. Our findings also suggest that a subset of MCL might show a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) that may influence the behaviour of the tumours.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e19736. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Global changes in DNA methylation correlate with altered gene expression and genomic instability in cancer. We have developed a methylation-specific digital sequencing (MSDS) method that can assess DNA methylation on a genomic scale. MSDS is a simple, low-cost method that combines the use of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes with second generation sequencing technology. DNA methylation in two colon cancer cell lines, HT29 and HCT116, was measured using MSDS. When methylation levels were compared between the two cell lines, many differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified in CpG island shore regions (located within 2kb of a CpG island), gene body regions and intergenic regions. The number of DMRs in the vicinity of gene transcription start sites correlated with the level of expression of TACC1, CLDN1, and PLEKHC1 (FERMT2) genes, which have been linked to carcinogenesis. The MSDS method has the potential to provide novel insight into the functional complexity of the human genome.Genomics 07/2011; 98(4):280-7. · 3.01 Impact Factor