The antioxidant potential of Sutherlandia frutescens

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, PO Box 2034, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3). 12/2004; 95(1):1-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.05.024
Source: PubMed


One of the best-known multi-purpose medicinal plants in Southern Africa, Sutherlandia frutescens subsp. microphylla (family: Fabaceae/Leguminosa), is used for a wide range of conditions, including cancer, viral diseases and inflammatory conditions. Little scientific data has been documented on the mechanism by which Sutherlandia frutescens acts on the immune system. Phagocyte derived reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals, are responsible for the pathogenesis of various inflammatory conditions. Anti-inflammatory properties of various medicinal-plant extracts have been explained, at least in part, by their antioxidant activities. We investigated the effects of a hot water extract of Sutherlandia frutescens on both luminol and lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence of neutrophils stimulated with L-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP) as well as its superoxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging properties in a cell free system. The results indicate that Sutherlandia frutescens extract possesses superoxide as well as hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities at concentrations as low as 10 microg/ml, which could account for some of the anti-inflammatory properties that have been described.

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    • "Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br, commonly referred to as " cancer bush " , is a medicinal plant traditionally used in southern Africa for a variety of health conditions [1]. S. frutescens has been used to treat patients suffering from various chronic health conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and gout where inflammation plays a significant role in the disease etiology or symptoms [2]. Fernandes and coworkers [3] suggested that the antioxidant properties of S. frutescens contribute to its anti-inflammatory actions. Using the 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging assay of acetone, aqueous, ethanol, methanol, and chloroform extracts of S. frutescens [4] [5] [6], antioxidant properties were demonstrated without direct evidence of anti-inflammatory activity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sutherlandia frutescens is a botanical widely used in southern Africa for treatment of inflammatory and other conditions. Previously, an ethanolic extract of S. frutescens (SFE) has been shown to inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) by murine neurons and a microglia cell line (BV-2 cells). In this study we sought to confirm the anti-inflammatory activities of SFE on a widely used murine macrophage cell line (i.e., RAW 264.7 cells) and primary mouse macrophages. Furthermore, experiments were conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonol and cycloartanol glycosides found in high quantities in S. frutescens. While the SFE exhibited anti-inflammatory activities upon murine macrophages similar to that reported with the microglia cell line, this effect does not appear to be mediated by sutherlandiosides or sutherlandins. In contrast, chlorophyll in our extracts appeared to be partly responsible for some of the activity observed in our macrophage-dependent screening assay.
    International immunopharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2015.11.012 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    • "The product identity was confirmed using HPLC/ELSD and HPLC/ UV (Avula et al., 2010), which determined that the S. frutescens used in this study contained 3.3% (w/w) of sutherlandioside B, a specific biomarker of this medicinal plant (Avula et al., 2010; Fu et al., 2008). An aqueous extract of S. frutescens was prepared using the method described by Fernandes et al. (2004). Briefly, 10 g of finely ground S. frutescens was added to 250 mL of boiling water. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br. is an indigenous plant of southern Africa that has been traditionally used for various cancers, infections, and inflammatory conditions. Our aim was to investigate the potential immuno-stimulatory activity of a polysaccharide-enriched fraction (SFPS) from a decoction of S. frutescens. RAW 264.7 cells (a murine macrophage cell line) were used to determine the activities of SFPS on macrophage function. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in the cells treated with or without SFPS. CLI-095, a toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-specific inhibitor, was used to identify whether or not SFPS exerts its effects through TLR4. An antagonist of endotoxin, polymyxin B, was used to evaluate whether endotoxin present in SFPS contributed to its immune-stimulatory activity. SFPS exhibited potent immune-stimulatory activity by macrophages. The production of ROS, NO, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) were increased upon exposure to SFPS in a dose-dependent manner. All of these activities were completely blocked by co-treatment with CLI-095, but only partially diminished by polymyxin B. We demonstrate for the first time potent immune-stimulatory activity in a decoction prepared from S. frutescens. We believe that this immune stimulatory activity is due, in part, to the action of polysaccharides present in the decoction that acts by way of TLR4 receptors and the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway. These findings provide a plausible mechanism through which we can understand some of the medicinal properties of S. frutescens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; 172. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.013 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    • "The results provide further support that the two species are chemically similar and there is little chemical information that can be used to differentiate them. This result is also supported by previous reports where S. microphylla has been referred to as a taxonomic ally and morphological variant of S. frutescens (Fernandes et al., 2004; Smith and Myburgh, 2004; Van Wyk and Albrecht, 2008). An S-plot of the OPLS-DA model was used to identify compounds that may be used for the differentiation between the two species and the results obtained are shown in Fig. 5. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sutherlandia frutescens (Fabaceae) commonly known as cancer-bush, is a well-known traditional phytomedicine in South Africa used to treat a range of ailments. There is limited information available on the phytochemistry and chemical variation within and between the S. frutescens and Sutherlandia microphylla species complex. This paper aims to elucidate the chemical variation of phytoconstituents (other than the non-protein amino acids) between the two species S. frutescens and S. microphylla and also between the wild and cultivated varieties of S. frutescens. An UPLC–MS analysis in tandem with chemometric analysis has been performed to assess the metabolite content of aerial plant parts obtained from different populations. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to observe groupings and trends in the data matrix. An orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was performed which resulted in clear groups between the two taxa. Several flavonoid and triterpenoid glycoside derivatives contribute to the quantitative chemotypic variation within and between the species as observed. The identification of these compounds using advanced chromatographic techniques (UPLC–MS) and chemometric analysis leads to a better understanding of the phytochemical variation of Sutherlandia which can aid in quality control of raw material, phytomedicines and commercial herbal products.
    Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 10/2014; 56:221–230. DOI:10.1016/j.bse.2014.06.009 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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