Polyamine depletion inhibits etoposide-induced NF-κB activation in transformed mouse fibroblasts
ABSTRACT In a previous research, we have shown that adequate levels of polyamines are required in transformed mouse fibroblasts for the correlated activations of MAPK subtypes (ERK and JNK) and caspases induced by etoposide and leading to apoptosis. We report now that the treatment of fibroblasts with etoposide also elicited a progressive and sustained increase of NF-kappaB activation. The DNA binding activity of p65 NF-kappaB subunit was increased up to approximately 4-fold and was accompanied by enhancement of p65 phosphorylation. A two days pre-treatment of fibroblasts with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), which caused polyamine depletion, provoked a slight activating effect when given alone, but markedly inhibited the etoposide-induced increases in p65 DNA binding and phosphorylation. The NF-kappaB inhibiting effect of DFMO was prevented by the addition of exogenous putrescine, which restored the intracellular content of polyamines. Selective inhibitors of the etoposide-stimulated MAPK subtypes also reduced NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, pharmacological NF-kappaB inhibition reduced the increase in caspase activity and cell death elicited by etoposide, suggesting that NF-kappaB is involved in signaling to apoptosis. The results of the present study, together with our previous findings, suggest that polyamines play a permissive role in the pathways triggered by etoposide and leading to cell death of fibroblasts, by supporting the activation of MAPKs, NF-kappaB and caspases.
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- "In contrast to our observations, two studies that examined the effects of exposing intestinal epithelial cells to DFMO (Li et al., 2001b; Pfeffer et al., 2001) found that it stimulated the formation of NF-κB DNA complexes, at least in part through the I-κB pathway and NF-κB nuclear translocation. On the other hand, we have shown quite recently (Tantini et al., 2004) that, in transformed mouse fibroblasts, DFMO markedly inhibited the increase in NF-κB DNA binding induced by etoposide in accordance with the present report, even if it provoked a slight activating effect when given alone. This variety of results may be due to the different cell types examined or differences in the experimental protocols. "
ABSTRACT: The activation of the NF-kappaB pathway by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), can be an important contributor for the re-programming of chondrocyte gene expression, thereby making it a therapeutic target in articular diseases. To search for new approaches to limit cartilage damage, we investigated the requirement of polyamines for NF-kappaB activation by TNFalpha in human C-28/I2 chondrocytes, using alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor. The NF-kappaB pathway was dissected by using pharmacological inhibitors or by expressing a transdominant IkappaBalpha super repressor. Treatment of C-28/I2 chondrocytes with TNFalpha resulted in a rapid enhancement of nuclear localization and DNA binding activity of the p65 NF-kappaB subunit. TNFalpha also increased the level and extracellular release of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a CXC chemokine that can have a role in arthritis, in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of chondrocytes with DFMO, while causing polyamine depletion, significantly reduced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. Moreover, DFMO also decreased IL-8 production without affecting cellular viability. Restoration of polyamine levels by the co-addition of putrescine circumvented the inhibitory effects of DFMO. Our results show that the intracellular depletion of polyamines inhibits the response of chondrocytes to TNFalpha by interfering with the DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB. This suggests that a pharmacological and/or genetic approach to deplete the polyamine pool in chondrocytes may represent a useful way to reduce NF-kappaB activation by inflammatory cytokines in arthritis without provoking chondrocyte apoptosis.Journal of Cellular Physiology 09/2005; 204(3):956-63. DOI:10.1002/jcp.20368 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polyamines are important multifunctional cellular components and are classically considered as mediators of cell growth and division. Recently polyamines have been also implicated in cell death. Now it appears that polyamines are bivalent regulators of cellular functions, promoting proliferation or cell death depending on the cell type and on environmental signals. This review draws a picture about the role of polyamines in signalling pathways related to apoptotic cell death and the proposed molecular targets of these polycations at the level of the apoptotic cascade. Solid evidence indicates that polyamines may affect the mitochondrial and postmitochondrial phases of apoptosis, by modulating cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activation of caspases. Recently, polyamines have been also implicated in the regulation of the premitochondrial phase of apoptosis, during which upstream apoptotic signal transduction pathways are activated. The studies reviewed here suggest that polyamines may participate in loops involving interaction with signal transduction pathways and activation/expression of proteins that may control cell death or cell growth.Amino Acids 01/2005; 27(3-4):359-65. DOI:10.1007/s00726-004-0115-3 · 3.65 Impact Factor
Article: Polyamines and apoptosis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The natural polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are in multiple ways involved in cell growth and the maintenance of cell viability. In the course of the last 15 years more and more evidence hinted also at roles in gene regulation. It is therefore not surprising that the polyamines are involved in events inherent to genetically programmed cell death. Following inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase, a key step in polyamine biosynthesis, numerous links have been identified between the polyamines and apoptotic pathways. Examples of activation and prevention of apoptosis due to polyamine depletion are known for several cell lines. Elevation of polyamine concentrations may lead to apoptosis or to malignant transformation. These observations are discussed in the present review, together with possible mechanisms of action of the polyamines. Contradictory results and incomplete information blur the picture and complicate interpretation. Since, however, much interest is focussed at present on all aspects of programmed cell death, a considerable progress in the elucidation of polyamine functions in apoptotic signalling pathways is expected, even though enormous difficulties oppose pinpointing specific interactions of the polyamines with pro- and anti-apoptotic factors. Such situation is quite common in polyamine research.Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 07/2005; 9(3):623-42. DOI:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2005.tb00493.x · 3.70 Impact Factor