Release of short and proline-rich antihypertensive peptides from casein hydrolysate with an Aspergillus oryzae protease.
ABSTRACT Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activities were measured after hydrolysis of casein by 9 different commercially available proteolytic enzymes. Among these enzymes, a protease isolated from Aspergillus oryzae showed the highest angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity per peptide. The A. oryzae peptide also showed the highest antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats when the systolic blood pressure was measured 5 h after oral administration of 32 mg/kg of various enzymatic hydrolysates. Significant antihypertensive effects were observed with dosages of 9.6, 32, and 96 mg of the A. oryzae peptide/kg of body weight (BW), and the effects were dependent on these peptide dosages. Analysis of peptide length showed the A. oryzae hydrolysate was the shortest of all tested casein hydrolysates; the peptide mixture had an average value of 1.4 amino acids (AA) in the sequence. To further characterize the A. oryzae hydrolysate, we analyzed the AA sequence of the whole peptide mixture. Various AA were detected at the first AA position, however, an increased number of Pro residues were observed at the second and third position of the A. oryzae hydrolysate. No strong signals were detected after the fourth AA position of the A. oryzae hydrolysate. These results suggest that the casein hydrolysate of A. oryzae, which expressed potent antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats, mainly contain short peptides of X-Pro and X-Pro-Pro sequences.
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ABSTRACT: Proteolytic enzymes secreted by the cold-adapted microorganism Arsukibacterium ikkense were tested for their ability to degrade caseins at low temperature and produce bioactive peptides. The caseins were extensively degraded (90%) after 24 h of hydrolysis at 5 °C and completely degraded at 25 °C, and many novel peptides were formed. The most hydrolysed sample showed high angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant activity, and a number of potent ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant peptides were identified. The presence of tyrosine seemed fundamental for both ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activity, while phenylalanine seemed to potentiate the antioxidant activity. The novel peptide YPELF was found to have strong radical scavenging and lipid oxidation inhibitory activities, with IC50 for both around 3.5 μM. None of the hydrolysates showed antimicrobial activity. Secreted enzymes from cultures of A. ikkense could thus be a valuable enzyme preparation for inexpensive, energy-efficient production of potent bioactive peptides from caseins in milk at low temperatures.Food Chemistry 12/2014; 165:205–215. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A process based on the isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) method was developed to recover collagen from low value poultry by-products. The application of the ISP process to turkey heads generated protein isolates and an insoluble biomass that was used to extract collagen. Isolated turkey head collagen was then enzymatically hydrolyzed for different time periods using alcalase, flavorzyme, and trypsin. The enzymatic hydrolysis approaches consisted of digesting collagen with each one of the 3 enzymes alone (alcalase, flavorzyme, or trypsin), or one of the 3 combinations of 2 enzymes (alcalase/flavorzyme, alcalase/trypsin, or flavorzyme/trypsin), or a cocktail of all 3 enzymes together (alcalase/flavorzyme/trypsin). The molecular weight distribution of turkey head collagen hydrolysates was determined using size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. The enzyme cocktail produced collagen hydrolysates with the greatest amount of low molecular weight peptides ranging from 555.26 to 2,093.74 Da. These collagen peptides showed excellent solubility over a wide pH range (2-: 8) and were able to bind cholic and deoxycholic acids and significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited plasma amine oxidase in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The ISP process combined with enzyme cocktail hydrolysis represents a potential new way to produce low molecular weight bioactive collagen peptides from low value poultry by-products.Poultry Science 06/2014; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The occurrence of the casein-derived angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor (ACE-I) peptides VPP, IPP, RYLGY, RYLG, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, LHLPLP and HLPLP were investigated in 12 different cheese samples by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. The total amount of ACE-I peptides was in the range 0.87–331 mg kg−1. VPP and IPP largely prevailed in almost all cheeses. Following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion of Cheddar, Gorgonzola, Maasdam and Grana Padano cheeses, type and amount of ACE-I peptides changed, and only VPP, IPP, HLPLP and LHLPLP were detected in the intestinal digestates. The results evidenced that the degree of proteolysis itself cannot be regarded as a promoting or hindering factor for ACE-I peptide release during cheese digestion. Moreover, the data indicated that the ACE-I potential of cheeses cannot be inferred based on the type and amount of ACE-I peptides present in undigested samples.Food Chemistry 02/2015; 168:27–33. · 3.26 Impact Factor