Article

Dietary factors and Alzheimer's disease.

Taub Institute for Research of Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA.
The Lancet Neurology (Impact Factor: 21.82). 11/2004; 3(10):579-87. DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(04)00878-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing in prevalence, and environmental risk factors have not been identified with certainty. There is evidence that oxidative stress, homocysteine-related vitamins, fats, and alcohol have a role in the pathogenesis of AD. Few large epidemiological studies have explored the associations between nutrients and AD, and there has been only one trial of vitamin E in the prevention of AD. Some studies suggest that high intake of vitamins C, E, B6, and B12, and folate, unsaturated fatty acids, and fish are related to a low risk of AD, but reports are inconsistent. Modest to moderate alcohol intake, particularly wine, may be related to a low risk of AD. Available data do not permit definitive conclusions regarding diet and AD or specific recommendations on diet modification for the prevention of AD.

0 Followers
 · 
61 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is a growing health problem worldwide. The pharmaceutical industry has not recently developed any new drugs that have had a significant impact on the natural history of the disease, so considerable attention has been given to nutraceuticals and nutritional bioactive compounds that can be obtained directly from diet or supplementation. These compounds may be able to modify physiopathological processes responsible for neurodegeneration and/or to have pro-cognitive properties. Here, we review current knowledge on the role of diet modifications, lipid and carbohydrates consumption, vitamin supplementation, and the possible effects of antioxidant and nutraceutical compounds with neuroprotective activity, in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 06/2014; 42(2). DOI:10.3233/JAD-132741 · 3.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A prolonged preclinical phase of more than two decades before the onset of dementia suggested that initial brain changes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the symptoms of advanced AD may represent a unique continuum. Given the very limited therapeutic value of drugs currently used in the treatment of AD and dementia, preventing or postponing the onset of AD and delaying or slowing its progression are becoming mandatory. Among possible reversible risk factors of dementia and AD, vascular, metabolic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the development of dementia and late-life cognitive disorders, opening new avenues for the prevention of these diseases. Among diet-associated factors, coffee is regularly consumed by millions of people around the world and owing to its caffeine content, it is the best known psychoactive stimulant resulting in heightened alertness and arousal and improvement of cognitive performance. Besides its short-term effect, some case-control and cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based studies evaluated the long-term effects on brain function and provided some evidence that coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption or higher plasma caffeine levels may be protective against cognitive impairment/decline and dementia. In particular, several cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based studies suggested a protective effect of coffee, tea, and caffeine use against late-life cognitive impairment/decline, although the association was not found in all cognitive domains investigated and there was a lack of a distinct dose-response association, with a stronger effect among women than men. The findings on the association of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption or plasma caffeine levels with incident mild cognitive impairment and its progression to dementia were too limited to draw any conclusion. Furthermore, for dementia and AD prevention, some studies with baseline examination in midlife pointed to a lack of association, although other case-control and longitudinal population-based studies with briefer follow-up periods supported favourable effects of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption against AD. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods should be encouraged, addressing other potential bias and confounding sources, so hopefully opening new ways for diet-related prevention of dementia and AD.
    The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 12/2014; 19(3). DOI:10.1007/s12603-014-0563-8 · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cognitive decline has a profound impact on the health and quality of life of older people and their caregivers. Exploring mechanisms to delay cognitive decline has become an urgent economic priority, given the projected changes in population demographics. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies suggest that adherence to a Mediterranean Diet (MD) is associated with reduced cognitive decline, but such an observation needs to be tested in randomised controlled trials. Intervention evidence is currently limited, and future studies need to be adequately powered, with careful attention given to choice of participants, outcomes being assessed, study duration and strategies to achieve compliance. Alongside these studies, consideration has to be given to how best promote and encourage dietary change in older people in general, and particularly in those experiencing the early stages of cognitive decline, as there may be specific factors that need to be considered when designing lifestyle behaviour change interventions in this group.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 3 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.178.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 09/2014; 68(11). DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2014.178 · 2.95 Impact Factor