Cryptococcal capsular glucuronoxylomannan reduces ischaemia-related neutrophil influx.
ABSTRACT The capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) of Cryptococcus neoformans interferes with the chemotaxis and transendothelial migration of neutrophils. Intravenous administration of purified GXM has been shown to reduce the influx of inflammatory cells in an animal model of bacterial infection. Here we show that isolated GXM can also interfere with neutrophil migration in a model of inflammation not related to infection. We assessed the effects of intravenous GXM on neutrophil infiltration in a rat model of myocardial ischaemia, where neutrophil infiltration has been shown to contribute to postischaemic reperfusion injury.
Rats were subjected to coronary artery ligation followed by a 3-h reperfusion period. Myeloperoxidase-activity was measured in the ischaemic tissues as a marker of neutrophil infiltration.
Intravenous administration of GXM markedly reduced the influx of neutrophils in the ischaemic myocardium as measured by a 65% reduction of tissue MPO activity. This reduction of MPO activity was clearly correlated to the serum concentration of GXM. As complement activation by GXM was minimal at the doses applied in vivo, it is unlikely that generation of chemotactic C5a in the circulation by GXM caused the observed reduction in leucocyte migration.
Purified cryptococcal GXM has the ability to reduce neutrophil influx even outside the scope of infection.
- SourceAvailable from: Claudia Monari[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus neoformans and cryptococcal surface polysaccharides influenced C5aR expression on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). Encapsulated and acapsular strains produced dramatically different effects. Treatment of PMN with acapsular cryptococci up-regulated C5aR expression; whereas treatment with encapsulated cells suppressed C5aR expression. Glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), the principal constituent of the cryptococcal capsule, was responsible for such inhibition. Increased C5aR expression following treatment with acapsular cryptococci was accompanied by increased binding of C5a to PMN, increased superoxide production in response to stimulation with C5a, and an increased chemotactic response to C5a. Conversely, decreased C5aR expression following treatment with encapsulated cryptococci or acapsular cryptococci that had been pretreated with GXM was accompanied by decreased binding of C5a to PMN and a decreased chemotactic response to C5a. Our results raise the possibility that the down-regulation of C5aR expression by encapsulated cryptococci might alter PMN function at the site of cryptococcal infection.Infection and Immunity 08/2002; 70(7):3363-70. · 4.07 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CY1503, an analogue of sialyl-Lewisx, is an inhibitor of the selectin adhesion molecules. CY1503 has been found to limit myocardial infarct size in canine and feline models. However, the effect of CY1503 on the "no-reflow" phenomenon is still unknown. Anesthetised rabbits were subjected to 30 min of coronary artery occlusion and 4 h of reperfusion. Protocol 1: after 27 min of ischemia, rabbits were randomised to an iv bolus of either CY1503 (30 mg/kg) (n=9) or saline (n=9). Protocol 2: rabbits were randomly given two iv boluses of CY1503 (30 mg/kg) (n=6) or saline (n=6), administered after 10 and 25 min of ischemia. Protocol 3: after 27 min of ischemia rabbits were randomly given an iv bolus of CY1503 (30 mg/kg) (n=6) and infusion of 20 mg/kg over 4 h or saline bolus+infusion (n=6). Regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) was assessed after 30 min and 4 h of reperfusion. The risk zone (RZ) was assessed by blue dye and the necrotic zone (NZ) by tetrazolium staining. RMBF: protocol 1: RMBF in the RZ was 2.19+/-0.33 v 2. 34+/-0.34 ml/g/min in CY1503 and controls at 30 min (P=0.75), and 0. 43+/-0.07 v 0.41+/-0.08 at 4 h of reperfusion (P=0.85). The corresponding results for protocol 2 were 1.77+/-0.29 v 1.53+/-0.34 at 30 min (P=0.61) and 0.53+/-0.16 v 0.91+/-0.55 at 4 h (P=0.53). RMBF in RZ in protocol 3 were 1.52+/-0.25 v 1.32+/-0.20 at 30 min (P=0.56) and 0.30+/-0.05 v 0.29+/-0.09 (P=0.90) after 4 h of reperfusion. The RZ was similar in both groups in all protocols. The NZ/RZ ratio was comparable in the CY1503 and control group in all three protocols (0.32+/-0.04 v 0.37+/-0.06, 0.37+/-0.08 v 0.33+/-0. 07, and 0.51+/-0.05 v 0.38+/-0.05 in protocols 1, 2, and 3, respectively). CY1503 did not limit infarct size or prevent the "no-reflow" phenomenon in the rabbit.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 09/1997; 29(8):2013-25. · 5.15 Impact Factor
- The Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/1998; 178(4):1231-2. · 5.85 Impact Factor