Cryptococcal capsular glucuronoxylomannan reduces ischaemia-related neutrophil influx.
ABSTRACT The capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) of Cryptococcus neoformans interferes with the chemotaxis and transendothelial migration of neutrophils. Intravenous administration of purified GXM has been shown to reduce the influx of inflammatory cells in an animal model of bacterial infection. Here we show that isolated GXM can also interfere with neutrophil migration in a model of inflammation not related to infection. We assessed the effects of intravenous GXM on neutrophil infiltration in a rat model of myocardial ischaemia, where neutrophil infiltration has been shown to contribute to postischaemic reperfusion injury.
Rats were subjected to coronary artery ligation followed by a 3-h reperfusion period. Myeloperoxidase-activity was measured in the ischaemic tissues as a marker of neutrophil infiltration.
Intravenous administration of GXM markedly reduced the influx of neutrophils in the ischaemic myocardium as measured by a 65% reduction of tissue MPO activity. This reduction of MPO activity was clearly correlated to the serum concentration of GXM. As complement activation by GXM was minimal at the doses applied in vivo, it is unlikely that generation of chemotactic C5a in the circulation by GXM caused the observed reduction in leucocyte migration.
Purified cryptococcal GXM has the ability to reduce neutrophil influx even outside the scope of infection.
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ABSTRACT: The study was aimed to investigate the potential mechanism of inflammatory renal damage induced by shock wave. A total of 48 rats, with the right kidney cut, are randomly assigned into control group, ESWL group and ESWL + PDTC group. Rats were treated with shock wave at the left kidney. At post-shock wave 3 and 105 days, all the animals were sacrificed for detecting the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. The inflammatory responses were evaluated by detecting the level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and ED-1. The histological renal injury was also examined. Before the animals were sacrificed, the urine samples were collected for measuring the values of malondialdehyde (MDA), β2-microglobulin, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-18. At post-shock wave 3 days, the higher expression of ICAM-1 and TNF-α were observed in shock wave-treated kidneys. The level of urine TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18 were also increased significantly. Using PDTC obviously decreased the expression of ICAM-1 and TNF-α. It also effectively inhibited the degree of oxidative stress and neutrophil infiltration. At post-shock wave 105 days, the expression of MCP-1 and the level of urine β2-microglobulin and IL-18 were increased significantly. The histological analysis also indicated more ED-1-positive cells and serious fibrosis in shock wave-treated kidneys. PDTC significantly suppressed MCP-1 and IL-18 expression, decreased monocyte infiltration, and alleviate the degree of interstitium fibrosis. Shock wave triggered excessive inflammatory responses and aggravated renal biological damage. Several inflammatory factors including ICAM-1, MCP-1, and TNF-α were considered to play important role in this type of renal damage.Inflammation 03/2014; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The capsule of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been studied extensively in recent decades and a large body of information is now available to the scientific community. Well-known aspects of the capsule include its structure, antigenic properties and its function as a virulence factor. The capsule is composed primarily of two polysaccharides, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) and galactoxylomannan (GalXM), in addition to a smaller proportion of mannoproteins (MPs). Most of the studies on the composition of the capsule have focused on GXM, which comprises more than 90% of the capsule's polysaccharide mass. It is GalXM, however, that is of particular scientific interest because of its immunological properties. The molecular structure of these polysaccharides is very complex and has not yet been fully elucidated. Both GXM and GalXM are high molecular mass polymers with the mass of GXM equaling roughly 10 times that of GalXM. Recent findings suggest, however, that the actual molecular weight might be different to what it has traditionally been thought to be. In addition to their structural roles in the polysaccharide capsule, these molecules have been associated with many deleterious effects on the immune response. Capsular components are therefore considered key virulence determinants in C. neoformans, which has motivated their use in vaccines and made them targets for monoclonal antibody treatments. In this review, we will provide an update on the current knowledge of the C. neoformans capsule, covering aspects related to its structure, synthesis and particularly, its role as a virulence factor.Advances in applied microbiology 02/2009; 68:133-216. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trichoderma stromaticum, a biocontrol agent of the cacao witches' broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa, has been used in Brazil as part of the integrated pest management of cacao. At the present time, little is known about the effects of T. stromaticum on the modulation of in vitro or in vivo immune responses. The present study examined the interaction of T. stromaticum spores with cellular and molecular components of the immune system following intranasal sensitization of mice. Our results showed that T. stromaticum spores prevented the expression and production of inflammatory mediators in macrophages stimulated with interferon (IFN)-γ plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays revealed that T. stromaticum spores inhibited the expression of dectin-1 and Toll-like-receptor (TLR)2/TLR4. Intranasal injection of BALB/c mice and subsequent challenge with spores of T. stromaticum induced a discrete inflammatory response in the lungs. Interestingly, the spores inhibited local and systemic production of the regulatory IL-10 and proinflammatory IFN-γ cytokines. In addition the spores presented an antiproliferative effect on spleen cells. These findings showed that the biopesticide T. stromaticum may exert immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in vivo.Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 01/2011; 74(14):943-58. · 1.73 Impact Factor