A video-based movement analysis system to quantify behavioral stress responses of fish. Water Res

Aquatic Pathobiology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, 8075 Greenmead Drive, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
Water Research (Impact Factor: 5.53). 12/2004; 38(18):3993-4001. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2004.06.028
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Behavioral alterations can be measured as endpoints for sublethal toxicity, and serve as a tool for environmental risk assessment and analysis of toxicological impact. Numerous technical and biological factors have made sublethal effects on fish behavior difficult to quantify. In order to investigate stress- and contaminant-induced behavioral alterations, a video analysis system was designed by our laboratory. With this system up to 12 fish may be individually housed in 20 L exposure arenas and automatically videotaped at multiple and discrete intervals during an experimental period. Analog video data can then digitized, converted into x,y coordinates, and finally transformed into relevant behavioral endpoints using software designed for tracking fish movement combined with specific algorithms. These endpoints include velocity, total distance traveled, angular change, percent movement, space utilization, and fractal dimension (path complexity). Data from fish exposed to a reference toxicant, MS222, and simulation experiments, are presented to exemplify alterations in fish behavior associated with exposure, and accuracy and precision, respectively. The system provides flexibility to analyze any observed movement behavior, is remotely controlled, and can be transportable. These movement analyses can be used to identify characteristic behavioral responses to a variety of environmentally-relevant stressors, and assist in risk assessment and the development of more sensitive lowest observable effect level and no observable effect level for sentinel species.

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    • "Behavioural analysis of crustacean species exposed to ionising radiation has relied largely upon anecdotal visual observations over a defined time period (Stalin et al., 2013a). This approach is subject to a number of limitations including a lack of test standards (Kane et al., 2004), a low sensitivity comparable with video-based behavioural analysers and the potential for individual bias. Furthermore , the available studies have employed acute radiation exposures which may induce different behavioural effects to equivalent doses delivered over longer time scales (Solomon et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive. Current phyla-specific dose levels and limits proposed by major regulatory bodies were found to be inadequate to protect species across a range of endpoints including morbidity, mutation and reproduction and examples are discussed within. These findings serve to prioritise areas for future research that will significantly advance understanding of radiation-induced effects in aquatic invertebrates and consequently enhance ability to predict the impacts of radioactive releases on the environment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 07/2015; 167:55-67. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.07.013 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    • "Behaviors may selectively and continuously adapt in response to direct interaction with physical and chemical aspects of the environment. Thus, behavior has been used to discern and evaluate the effects of exposure to environmental stressors (Baldwin et al., 1994; Balk et al., 1996; Gruber et al., 1994; Kane et al., 2004; Kim et al., 2011). Behavioral monitoring in toxicology provides well-defined endpoints that are practical to measure and to understand in relation to environmental factors that cause variation in the response; use of such indirect monitoring is referred to as surrogacy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fish are rapidly becoming favored as convenient sentinels for behavioral assays of toxic chemical exposure. Tail-beat frequency (TBF) of fish is highly correlated with swimming speed, which has been used to detect toxicants. Here we examined the effect on TBF of exposure to two chemicals, and evaluated the ability of this novel behavioral parameter to accurately monitor water quality. To further refine our approach, the Wall-hitting rate (WHR) was used to characterize behavioral avoidance after exposure. Overall, exposure to test chemicals at different levels induced significant increase in both behavioral parameters of the red crucian carp during 1-h exposure periods. Furthermore, the TBF achieved better performance as an indicator when it was calculated in cases where the fish hit the tank wall. Collectively, this study demonstrates the capacity of the TBF of fish to assess water quality in a reliable manner.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 01/2015; 111. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.09.028 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "The use of videography is now a very common technique in animal movement and behavior study (Kato et al., 1996; Kane et al., 2004; Pennekamp and Schtickzelle, 2013). However, there are several issues of measurement errors that need to be addressed when obtaining measurement through the use of video images and the associated uncertainty in interpreting fish movement. "
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    ABSTRACT: Like many migratory species, anadromous juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) rely heavily on light perception to orient themselves in space, capture prey, shoal, avoid predators, and migrate along the shoreline to the ocean. However, the continuous demographic expansion along the US West coast has modified many natural coastal environments and has created a new artificial light environment for these species. Among the contributing factors are the construction of large overwater structures such as ferry terminals that have interfered with juvenile salmon migration and behavior by reducing light availability in the salmon migratory pathway. We examined in this study whether the use of an artificial lighting system can mitigate the dock shading impacts on juvenile salmon behavior. A linear mixed effect model was used to analyze changes in individual fish behavior (due to dock shading and artificial lighting) within a shoal. Two different fish movement metrics were examined to characterize the change in behavior: swimming angular variation, and closest distance to the dock. Juvenile salmon avoided penetrating under the dock when strong shadow was present underneath it. Conversely, when artificial light was used to attenuate the dock edge shadow, it was able to mitigate to some extent the effect on juvenile salmon swimming behavior by making them swim closer to the dock with a higher directionality. But when light was used on a non-shaded area, it caused them to stay further away. Light could potentially be used as a method to mitigate dock shading but precautions need to be paid.
    Ecological Engineering 08/2014; 71:180-189. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.07.010 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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