PKC-interacting proteins: from function to pharmacology.
ABSTRACT Protein kinase C (PKC) is a ubiquitously expressed family of kinases that have key roles in regulating multiple cellular activities. The activity of this family is controlled tightly by several molecular mechanisms, including interaction with binding-partner proteins. These PKC-interacting proteins (C-KIPs) confer specificity for individual PKC isoforms by regulating the activity and cellular localization of PKC isoforms and, subsequently, the ability of these isoforms to specifically regulate cellular functional events. Although many C-KIPs have been identified by genome and proteome-mining approaches, it is important to address the specificity and function of the interactions in greater detail because they might form novel drug targets. In this article, we review recent work on C-KIPs and the implications for pharmacological and therapeutic development.
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ABSTRACT: Protein kinase Cι (PKCι) is an important oncogenic K-ras effector, and its expression is correlated with tumor angiogenesis. The role of PKCι in gastric cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of PKCι in gastric cancer.Surgery Today 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00595-014-1010-5 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is implicated in the nociceptive (pain) sensitivity of primary afferent neurons. We found that the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) functionally stimulated voltage-gated T-type Ca(2+) (CaV3) channels in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons through a mechanism dependent on heterotrimeric G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein) signaling. IGF-1 increased T-type channel currents in small-diameter DRG neurons in a manner dependent on IGF-1 concentration and IGF-1R but independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). The intracellular subunit of IGF-1R coimmunoprecipitated with Gαo. Blocking G protein signaling by the intracellular application of guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-β-S or with pertussis toxin abolished the stimulatory effects of IGF-1. Antagonists of protein kinase Cα (PKCα), but not of PKCβ, abolished the IGF-1-induced T-type channel current increase. Application of IGF-1 increased membrane abundance of PKCα, and PKCα inhibition (either pharmacologically or genetically) abolished the increase in T-type channel currents stimulated by IGF-1. IGF-1 increased action potential firing in DRG neurons and increased the sensitivity of mice to both thermal and mechanical stimuli applied to the hindpaw, both of which were attenuated by intraplantar injection of a T-type channel inhibitor. Furthermore, inhibiting IGF-1R signaling or knocking down CaV3.2 or PKCα in DRG neurons abolished the increased mechanical and thermal sensitivity that mice exhibited under conditions modeling chronic hindpaw inflammation. Together, our results showed that IGF-1 enhances T-type channel currents through the activation of IGF-1R that is coupled to a G protein-dependent PKCα pathway, thereby increasing the excitability of DRG neurons and the sensitivity to pain.Science Signaling 10/2014; 7(346):ra94. DOI:10.1126/scisignal.2005283 · 7.65 Impact Factor