Influence of portal hypertension and its early decompression by TIPS placement on the outcome of variceal bleeding.
ABSTRACT Increased portal pressure during variceal bleeding may have an influence on the treatment failure rate, as well as on short- and long-term survival. However, the usefulness of hepatic hemodynamic measurement during the acute episode has not been prospectively validated, and no information exists about the outcome of hemodynamically defined high-risk patients treated with early portal decompression. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement was made within the first 24 hours after admission of 116 consecutive patients with cirrhosis with acute variceal bleeding treated with a single session of sclerotherapy injection during urgent endoscopy. Sixty-four patients had an HVPG less than 20 mm Hg (low-risk [LR] group), and 52 patients had an HVPG greater than or equal to 20 mm Hg (high-risk [HR] group). HR patients were randomly allocated into those receiving transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS; HR-TIPS group, n = 26) within the first 24 hours after admission and those not receiving TIPS (HR-non-TIPS group). The HR-non-TIPS group had more treatment failures (50% vs. 12%, P =.0001), transfusional requirements (3.7 +/- 2.7 vs. 2.2 +/- 2.3, P =.002), need for intensive care (16% vs. 3%, P <.05), and worse actuarial probability of survival than the LR group. Early TIPS placement reduced treatment failure (12%, P =.003), in-hospital and 1-year mortality (11% and 31%, respectively; P <.05). In conclusion, increased portal pressure estimated by early HVPG measurement is a main determinant of treatment failure and survival in variceal bleeding, and early TIPS placement reduces treatment failure and mortality in high risk patients defined by hemodynamic criteria.
- Hepatology 01/1981; 1(6):673-6. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Uncontrolled variceal haemorrhage is the main indication for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. However, mortality is 50% for this high-risk group. We have evaluated clinical and laboratory variables prior to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in order to establish predictors of mortality, validated prospectively. Over a 4-year period, 367 patients were admitted with variceal bleeding. In 54 patients endoscopic therapy for acute variceal bleeding failed and they had emergency transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Failure of therapy was defined as continued bleeding after 2 endoscopy sessions (n=39) or vasoconstrictor-resistant bleeding from gastric/ectopic varices (n=15). Thirty-three variables were analysed from data available immediately prior to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Twenty-six patients died within 6 weeks. In a multivariate analysis, 6 factors had independent prognostic value: moderate/severe ascites, requirement for ventilation, white cell blood count (WBC), platelet count (PLT), partial thromboplastin time with kaolin (PTTK) and creatinine. A prognostic index (PI) score was derived, in which presence of moderate/severe ascites, or need for ventilation, scored 1: PI=1.54 (Ascites)+1.27 (Ventilation)+1.38 Ln (WBC)+2.48 ln (PTTK)+1.55 Ln (Creat)-1.05 Ln (PLT). Using this equation, 42% (n=10) of deaths occurred in the fifth quintile (PI > or = 18.52), where the mortality was 100%. The score was prospectively validated in a further 31 patients, giving 100% positive predictive value. Eleven further patients died, including all seven with a PI >18.5. No survivors had a PI >18.3. Despite immediate control of bleeding by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, patients with uncontrolled variceal haemorrhage have a high mortality, particularly when associated with markers of advanced liver disease, sepsis and multi-organ failure. The use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is probably not justified in this subgroup. Our prognostic index can help identify such patients, and, if validated elsewhere, will help in deciding when to use transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.Journal of Hepatology 03/1998; 28(3):454-60. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Seventy-two consecutively admitted patients with biopsy-proven alcoholic cirrhosis and a bleeding episode endoscopically proven to originate from ruptured esophageal varices were studied. Hemodynamic assessment was performed within 48 hr of admission using the transjugular approach. Mean portal pressure was found to be significantly greater in the group of patients who died than in those who survived for 1 week, 2 weeks or 1 month after admission. We conclude that: The portohepatic pressure gradient and portal pressure have short-term prognostic value in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis bleeding from ruptured esophageal varices. Owing to a high early mortality, any delay between the occurrence of a bleeding episode and the measurement of portal pressure appears to select a sample of survivors with a significantly lower mean level of portal pressure than in those measured earlier. When evaluating portal pressure, the time of study is one of the most important variables which may affect the conclusions.Hepatology 01/1986; 6(1):116-7. · 12.00 Impact Factor