Influence of portal hypertension and its early decompression by TIPS placement on the outcome of variceal bleeding.
ABSTRACT Increased portal pressure during variceal bleeding may have an influence on the treatment failure rate, as well as on short- and long-term survival. However, the usefulness of hepatic hemodynamic measurement during the acute episode has not been prospectively validated, and no information exists about the outcome of hemodynamically defined high-risk patients treated with early portal decompression. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement was made within the first 24 hours after admission of 116 consecutive patients with cirrhosis with acute variceal bleeding treated with a single session of sclerotherapy injection during urgent endoscopy. Sixty-four patients had an HVPG less than 20 mm Hg (low-risk [LR] group), and 52 patients had an HVPG greater than or equal to 20 mm Hg (high-risk [HR] group). HR patients were randomly allocated into those receiving transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS; HR-TIPS group, n = 26) within the first 24 hours after admission and those not receiving TIPS (HR-non-TIPS group). The HR-non-TIPS group had more treatment failures (50% vs. 12%, P =.0001), transfusional requirements (3.7 +/- 2.7 vs. 2.2 +/- 2.3, P =.002), need for intensive care (16% vs. 3%, P <.05), and worse actuarial probability of survival than the LR group. Early TIPS placement reduced treatment failure (12%, P =.003), in-hospital and 1-year mortality (11% and 31%, respectively; P <.05). In conclusion, increased portal pressure estimated by early HVPG measurement is a main determinant of treatment failure and survival in variceal bleeding, and early TIPS placement reduces treatment failure and mortality in high risk patients defined by hemodynamic criteria.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract An increasing number of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) have undergone transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). However, the critical role of TIPS in the treatment of BCS has not been systematically reviewed. The authors identified all relevant literatures via the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Overall, 160 papers from 29 countries reported the application of TIPS for BCS. The number of publications was increased over time, but the level of evidence in this field was low. Common indications for TIPS in BCS patients included refractory ascites, recurrent variceal bleeding, diffuse hepatic vein thrombosis and progressive liver failure. Successful TIPS insertion could improve the hemodynamic and clinical parameters. TIPS procedure-related complications were not infrequent (range: 0-56%), but procedure-related death was rare. Shunt dysfunction rate appeared to be higher (range: 18-100%). Compared with bare stents, covered stents could significantly decrease the rate of shunt dysfunction. Hepatic encephalopathy rate after TIPS was relatively low (range: 0-25%). Short- and long-term prognosis of BCS-TIPS patients was excellent with 1-year cumulative survival rate of 80-100% and 5-year cumulative survival rate of 74-78%. In conclusions, existing literatures supported the feasibility, safety and efficacy of TIPS in the treatment of BCS. Prospective cohort studies or randomized controlled trials were difficult due to the rarity of BCS, but might be very necessary to precisely identify the timing of transition from medical therapy and/or percutaneous recanalization to TIPS insertion and the real candidates in whom early TIPS should be promptly employed with no need of any prior therapy.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor
- Gastroenterología y Hepatología 05/2005; 28(4):237-9. · 0.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion in managing the complications of portal hypertension is well established, but its utility in patients who have previously undergone liver transplantation is not well documented. Twenty-two orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients and 44 nontransplant patients (matched controls) who underwent TIPS were analyzed. In the OLT patients, the TIPS procedure was performed at a median of 44.8 months (range = 0.3-143 months) after transplantation. Eight (36.4%) had variceal bleeding, and 14 (63.6%) had refractory ascites. The underlying liver disease was cholestatic in 10 (45.4%) and viral in 4 (18.2%). The mean pre-TIPS Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 13.4 ± 5.1. There were no significant differences in age, sex, indication, etiology, or MELD score with respect to the control group. The mean initial portal pressure gradients (PPGs) were similar in the 2 groups (21.0 versus 22.4 mm Hg for the OLT patients and controls, respectively), but the final PPG was lower in the control group (9.9 versus 6.9 mm Hg, P < 0.05). The rates of both technical success and clinical success were higher in the control group versus the OLT group [95.5% versus 68.2% (P < 0.05) and 93.2% versus 77.2% (P < 0.05), respectively]. The rates of complications and post-TIPS encephalopathy were similar in the 2 groups, and there was a trend toward increased rates of shunt insufficiency in the OLT group. The mortality rate of the patients with a pre-TIPS MELD score > 15 was significantly higher in the OLT group [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.45-12.88, P < 0.05], but the mortality rates of the patients with a pre-TIPS MELD score < 15 were similar in the 2 groups. In the OLT group, the predictors of increased mortality were the pre-TIPS MELD score (HR = 1.161, 95% CI = 1.036-1.305, P < 0.05) and pre-TIPS MELD scores > 15 (HR = 5.846, 95% CI = 1.754-19.485, P < 0.05). In conclusion, TIPS insertion is feasible in transplant recipients, although its efficacy is lower in these patients versus control patients. Outcomes are poor for OLT recipients with a pre-TIPS MELD score > 15.Liver Transplantation 07/2011; 17(7):771-8. · 3.94 Impact Factor