Article

Is the party over? Cannabis and juvenile psychiatric disorder: The past 10 years

University of Sydney, Australia.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 6.35). 11/2004; 43(10):1194-205. DOI: 10.1097/01.chi.0000135623.12843.60
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people.
Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child and adolescent data.
In the 27 years between 1976 and 2002, approximately half of all 12th graders had been exposed to cannabis in the United States. There is growing evidence that early and regular marijuana use is associated with later increases in depression, suicidal behavior, and psychotic illness and may bring forward the onset of schizophrenia. Most of the recent data reject the view that marijuana is used to self-medicate psychotic or depressive symptoms. Research on treatment is very limited.
Research on the mental health effects of cannabis has increased dramatically. Although doubts still remain about the role of cannabis in the causation of juvenile psychiatric disorder, the weight of the evidence points in the direction of early and regular cannabis use having substantial negative effects on psychosocial functioning and psychopathology.

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    • "Among adolescent cannabis users, initiation seems to peak at age 15 (Monshouwer et al., 2005). At the same time, cannabis involvement has been related to several adverse outcomes , including other illicit drug use, poor school performance and early dropout, crime and mental health problems including depression, psychosis and substance use disorders, that seem most pronounced in adolescents who start using cannabis before age 16 (Arseneault et al., 2002; Fergusson et al., 2002; Lynskey and Hall, 2000; Rey et al., 2004). Research on initiation of cannabis use before age 16 can improve our understanding of a developmental pathway that may end with such serious adverse outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined (1) the association between changes in perceived parental control and support from age 13 to 15 and early onset of cannabis use (before age 16), and (2) whether personality modifies the association between a decline in perceived parental control and support and early onset of cannabis use. Objectives were studied using data (three waves covering two years) from 444 Dutch adolescents participating in the Research on Adolescent Development and Relationships (RADAR) study. Adolescents had a mean age of 13 years at baseline, and reported at each wave about perceived parental control and support. Big Five personality traits and past year cannabis use were also measured by self-report. Joint latent growth curve-discrete-time survival analyses were used to answer the research questions. Early onset of cannabis use was reported by 19.4% of the sample. Overall, a decline in perceived parental control or support from age 13 to age 15 was unrelated to the risk of early onset of cannabis use. In adolescents with low levels of emotional stability and extraversion, a stronger decline in perceived parental control was associated with an increased risk of early cannabis use. Experiencing a decline in parental control from age 13 to 15 is associated with early onset of cannabis use in adolescents characterized by low emotional stability and low extraversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 11/2014; 146. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.11.004 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    • "Using the Medline search string [(cannabi* OR marijuana OR marihuana OR weed OR hash) AND (“risk factor*” OR “predict*” OR associat*) AND (harm OR problem* OR dependenc* OR abus*)], 3187 publications between January 1, 2000 and March 1, 2014 were identified, including 382 review articles. Among the associations covered in these publications are those between cannabis and genetic and/or environmental factors [17], stress [18], other mental health disorders [19] including juvenile psychiatric disorders [20]; the link between cannabis and psychosis/schizophrenia [21], [22], neurocognitive [23] and neuroanatomical [24] correlates of cannabis use, between cannabis and socioeconomic status [25], and early onset of cannabis use [26]. A number of studies specifically assessed associations between use quantity and cannabis abuse/dependence [27], [28]. "
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    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108298. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108298 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Underage drinking and illicit drug use are common and serious health problems among college students (Caldeira, Arria, O'Grady, Vincent, & Wish, 2008; Johnston, O'Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2011) and are related to a multitude of adverse consequences (Brook, Adams, Balka, & Johnson, 2002; Fergusson, Horwood, & Swain-Campbell, 2002; Ham & Hope, 2003; Miller, Naimi, Brewer, & Jones, 2007; Rey, Martin, & Krabman, 2004). The risk for substance use initiation and subsequent manifestation of substance use disorder (SUD) 1 is high during late adolescence (Bachman, Wadsworth, O'Malley, Johnson, & Schulenberg, 1997; Chen & Kandel, 1995), and vulnerability is highly influenced by macro-level (e.g., availability, drug and alcohol laws, outlet density), intermediate level (e.g., parents, peers, religion, external stressors), and micro-level (e.g., alcohol expectancies, personality traits, genetics) risk and protective factors (Hasin & Katz, 2010). "
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