The Roles of Food and Water in the Bioaccumulation of Organochlorine Compounds in High Mountain Lake Fish

Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Accés Cala St Francesc, 17300-Blanes, Catalonia, Spain.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 09/2004; 38(16):4269-75. DOI: 10.1021/es040035p
Source: PubMed


An integrated study encompassing the distribution of organochlorine compounds (OC) in water, food web (chironomids, terrestrial insects, cladocerans, mollusks, and cyanobacteria), and fish (brown trout) from a high mountain lake (Redon, Pyrenees) is reported. OC distributions in these compartments have been determined to assess theirtransport routes into fish. Food diets have been estimated by analysis of fish stomach content and food web stable isotopes (delta13C and delta15N). OCs with octanol--water partition coefficient (Kow) higher than 10(6) showed lower concentrations in food than expected from theoretical octanol--water partition, indicating thatthe distribution of these compounds does not reach equilibrium within the life span of the food web organisms (ca. 1 year). On the other hand, the degree of biomagnification in fish increased with Kow, except in the case of the largest compound analyzed (seven chlorine substituents, PCB #180). OC exchange at fish gill and gut has been evaluated using a fugacity model based on the water, food, and fish concentrations. All compounds exhibited a net gill loss and a net gut uptake. A pseudostationary state was only achieved for compounds with log(Kow) < 6. Calculation of fish average residence times for the compounds in apparent steady state gave values of days to a few weeks for HCHs, 1 year for HCB and 4,4'-DDE, and 2-3 years for 4,4'-DDT and PCB#28 and PCB#52. Residence times longer than one decade were found for the more chlorinated PCB.

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    • "Fish are suitable sentinel organisms of these pollutants (Grimalt et al., 2001; Catalan et al., 2004). However, adequate species must be selected according to the community structure of each riverine system. "
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    ABSTRACT: European catfish, Silurus glanis, were used as sentinel organisms of the influence of recent and past discharges of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River. The fish concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs were very high along the last 100km of the river, including the irrigation channels, e.g. 1.2-27ng/g wet weight of HCB, 6.3-100ng/g ww of PCBs and 1-270ng/g ww of total DDT compounds. These concentrations were much higher than those found upstream from the chlor-alkali discharge site, 0.2ng/g ww for HCB, 5.6ng/g ww for PCBs and 7.5ng/g for DDT compounds. These concentrations were also standing out among those previously described in this fish species. The European catfish collected in sites under lower water flows, Ribarroja reservoir and irrigation channels, showed higher muscle lipid content, 1.09-7.2%, than those from sites of higher current intensities, river bed, 0.27%-0.67%. In these lower water current areas catfish exhibited OC ww concentrations that were correlated to % lipids. These differences suggest that normalization to lipid content is necessary for comparison of the OC accumulation in specimens from riverine systems living under different flow intensities. Accordingly, OC concentrations referred to lipid content showed more uniform downriver distribution which was consistent with a single focal point as main source of these compounds for the European catfish collected in the last 100km of river stretch. This geographic distribution was also consistent with the uniform composition of PCB congeners in the studied European catfish. The distribution of DDT compounds was predominated by 4,4'-DDE which is common in most currently examined fish from aquatic environments. However, it included a high proportion of 4,4'-DDD and 2,4'-DDD which was consistent with the high contribution of benthic organisms from anoxic environments in the diet of these fish.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2016; 540:221–230. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.103 · 4.10 Impact Factor
    • "Fish are the most common organism sampled for contaminant assessment in mountain lakes (Blais et al. 2006), although they are often alien species to mountain lakes (Miró and Ventura 2013), as most mountain lakes were originally fishless due to their steep outlets, produced by glacial erosion, that fish cannot swim upwards or the lack of outlet in seepage and many volcanic lakes. Contaminants in fish may follow similar altitudinal patterns as in sediments (Grimalt et al. 2001), as they integrate food items from different lake habitats (Catalan et al. 2004). This is not the case for any other kind of organism. "
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    ABSTRACT: High mountain regions may be perceived as areas of high environmental quality, yet many contaminants are ubiquitous on the planet through long-range atmospheric transportation. Mountain lake sediments record and archive how this global contamination is proceeding and have developed throughout history, particularly since rapid industrialization in the 1950s. Action against diffuse atmospheric contamination transported far away from the sources requires the development of national and international protocols, which must be based on reliable scientific evidence. Research on mountain lake sediments aims to provide long-term references, models for interpretation of results, and sound understanding of the mechanisms that lie behind the observed patterns of contamination. Mountains offer an excellent setting for environmental research because short distances may provide marked physical gradients (e.g., air temperature), and ecosystems are relatively amenable to observation and modelling. The lake sediment contributions are important complements to other observational approaches used in global change research. This chapter focuses on trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organohalogen compounds (OHCs). After a short introduction regarding contaminants and the several operative ways to examine the sediment archive, the main features of contaminant distribution in mountain lake sediments are described, followed by a section on the understanding of the processes behind the patterns (e.g., atmospheric transport, catchment interactions, air-water exchange, water column dynamics and eventual sediment archiving), and finishes with a section on biological assessment.
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    • "Despite their remoteness and isolation from local pollution sources, high mountain lakes receive significant concentrations of long-range transported persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine compounds (OCs), and organobrominated compounds, like PBDEs, which accumulate in their sediments and biota (Ackerman et al., 2008; Fernández et al., 2000; Gallego et al., 2007; Grimalt et al., 2001; van Drooge et al., 2004; Vives et al., 2004b) Fish from mountain lakes accumulate airborne POPs (Gallego et al., 2007; Grimalt et al., 2001; Vives et al., 2004b), which are able to alter the fish physiology (Catalan et al., 2004; Jarque et al., 2010; Moran et al., 2007; Quirós et al., 2007; Schwindt et al., 2009). Endocrine disruptors are " exogenous substances that cause adverse effects in an organism, or its progeny, subsequent to changes in the endocrine system " (Weybridge definition, European Comission, 1996). "
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic mRNA levels of the dio2 gene (deiodinase 2), implicated in thyroid hormone homeostasis, were analyzed in trout from six remote lakes in the Pyrenees (Spain) and the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia). Highest levels corresponded to fish from the two coldest lakes in Pyrenees, whereas relatively low levels were found in the Tatra lakes. These values correlated with the presence of highly-brominated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) congeners in the muscle of the same animals, reflecting the distribution of these compounds across European mountain ranges. In contrast, cyp1a expression levels, diagnostic for the presence of dioxin-like pollutants, mirrored the distribution of semi-volatile organochlorine compounds, indicating the specificity of the two types of biological responses. Exposure to PDBEs is known to increase transcription of dio2 and other thyroid-related genes in laboratory experiments; we propose that our data reflects the same phenomenon in natural populations, driven by anthropogenic pollutants at the environmental concentrations.
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