Structure of cerebral arterioles in mice deficient in expression of the gene for endothelial nitric oxide synthase
ABSTRACT We examined effects of pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and genetic deficiency of the endothelial isoform of NOS (eNOS) on structure and mechanics of cerebral arterioles. We measured pressure, diameter, and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vessel wall (histologically) in maximally dilated cerebral arterioles in mice that were untreated or treated for 3 months with the NOS inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg per day in drinking water). Treatment with L-NAME increased systemic arterial mean pressure (SAP; 143+/-4 versus 121+/-4 mm Hg, P<0.05) and CSA (437+/-27 versus 310+/-34 microm2, P<0.05). These findings suggest that hypertension induced in mice by NOS inhibition is accompanied by hypertrophy of cerebral arterioles. To determine the role of the eNOS isoform in regulation of cerebral vascular growth, we examined mice with targeted disruption of one (heterozygous) or both (homozygous) genes encoding eNOS. Wild-type littermates served as controls. SAP and CSA were significantly increased in homozygous (SAP, 141+/-5 versus 122+/-3 mm Hg in wild-type mice, P<0.05; CSA, 410+/-18 versus 306+/-15 microm2 in wild-type mice, P<0.05), but not in heterozygous (SAP, 135+/-4 mm Hg; CSA, 316+/-32 microm2) eNOS-deficient mice. Carotid ligation normalized cerebral arteriolar pulse pressure did not prevent increases in CSA in homozygous eNOS-deficient mice. Thus, cerebral arterioles undergo hypertrophy in homozygous eNOS-deficient mice, even in the absence of increases in arteriolar pulse pressure. These findings suggest that eNOS plays a major role in regulation of cerebral vascular growth.
SourceAvailable from: Siu-Lung Chan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is involved in many hypertension-related vascular diseases in the brain, including stroke and dementia. Thus, we examined the role of genetic deficiency of NADPH oxidase subunit Nox2 in the function and structure of cerebral arterioles during hypertension. Arterial pressure was increased in right-sided cerebral arterioles with transverse aortic banding for 4 weeks in 8-week-old wild-type (WT) and Nox2-deficient (-/y) mice. Mice were given N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg) or vehicle to drink. We measured the reactivity in cerebral arterioles through open cranial window in anesthetized mice and wall cross-sectional area and superoxide levels ex vivo. Aortic constriction increased systolic and pulse pressures in right-sided carotid arteries in all groups of mice. Ethidium fluorescence showed increased superoxide in right-sided cerebral arterioles in WT, but not in Nox2-/y mice. Dilation to acetylcholine, but not sodium nitroprusside, was reduced, and cross-sectional areas were increased in the right-sided arterioles in WT, but were unchanged in Nox2-/y mice. L-NAME reduced dilation to acetylcholine but did not result in hypertrophy in right-sided arterioles of Nox2-/y mice. In conclusion, hypertension-induced superoxide production derived from Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase promotes hypertrophy and causes endothelial dysfunction in cerebral arterioles, possibly involving interaction with nitric oxide.03/2013; 2013:793630. DOI:10.1155/2013/793630
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ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin is known as the requisite cytokine for red blood cell production. Its receptor, expressed at a high level on erythroid progenitor/precursor cells, is also found on endothelial, neural, and other cell types. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in the developing and adult brain suggest their possible involvement in neurodevelopment and neuroprotection. During ischemic stress, erythropoietin, which is hypoxia inducible, can contribute to brain homeostasis by increasing red blood cell production to increase the blood oxygen carrying capacity, stimulate nitric oxide production to modulate blood flow and contribute to the neurovascular response, or act directly on neural cells to provide neuroprotection as demonstrated in culture and animal models. Clinical studies of erythropoietin treatment in stroke and other diseases provide insight on safety and potential adverse effects and underscore the potential pleiotropic activity of erythropoietin. Herein, we summarize the roles of EPO and its receptor in the developing and adult brain during health and disease, providing first a brief overview of the well-established EPO biology and signaling, its hypoxic regulation, and role in erythropoiesis.02/2012; 2012:953264. DOI:10.1155/2012/953264
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive performances are tightly associated with the maximal aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max), both of which decline with age. The benefits on mental health of regular exercise, which slows the age-dependent decline in VO2max, have been established for centuries. In addition, the maintenance of an optimal cerebrovascular endothelial function through regular exercise, part of a healthy lifestyle, emerges as one of the key and primary elements of successful brain aging. Physical exercise requires the activation of specific brain areas that trigger a local increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) to match neuronal metabolic needs. In this review, we propose three ways by which exercise could maintain the cerebrovascular endothelial function, a premise to a healthy cerebrovascular function and an optimal regulation of CBF: first, exercise increases blood flow locally and increases shear stress temporarily, a known stimulus for endothelial cell maintenance of Akt-dependent expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide generation and the expression of antioxidant defenses. Second, the rise in circulating catecholamines during exercise not only facilitates adequate blood and nutrient delivery by stimulating heart function and mobilizing energy supplies, but also enhances endothelial repair mechanisms and angiogenesis. Third, in the long-term, regular exercise sustains a low resting heart rate that reduces the mechanical stress imposed to the endothelium of cerebral arteries by the cardiac cycle. Any chronic variation from a healthy environment will perturb metabolism and thus hasten endothelial damage, favoring hypo-perfusion and neuronal stress.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 06/2013; 305(5). DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00624.2012 · 4.01 Impact Factor