Tumor size as a predictor of outcome in pediatric non-metastatic osteosarcoma of the extremity.
ABSTRACT Better predictors of outcome would allow improved risk-adapted therapy for pediatric nonmetastatic osteosarcoma of the extremity. We investigated the predictive value of MR imaging-based measures of absolute and relative tumor size and volume at the time of diagnosis. We also assessed the relation of tumor size to age and histologic response.
We retrospectively abstracted demographic, treatment history, and outcome information of patients treated on a single institutional protocol. A single pediatric oncologic radiologist manually measured each primary lesion and the affected native bone in three dimensions on MR images obtained at the time of diagnosis. Eight parameters of tumor size were analyzed for their value in predicting overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS).
The median age of the 42 patients was 13.5 years (range: 5.9-18.7 years); 50% were female and 74% were Caucasian. Absolute tumor volume was an important predictor of OS (P < 0.05); absolute tumor depth (analyzed as a continuous variable) was a significant predictor of OS (P = 0.018) and EFS (P = 0.036). Relative measures of tumor size were not found to predict outcome. No relation was seen between tumor size and histologic response.
Absolute tumor size at the time of diagnosis is significantly predictive of OS and EFS. If validated in a larger study, this indicator should be used in the design of risk-adapted treatment protocols for osteosarcoma.
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ABSTRACT: There are conflicting data regarding age as a prognostic factor in osteosarcoma. The authors conducted a study evaluating the impact of age on prognosis in children and young adults with osteosarcoma enrolled on North American cooperative group trials. Patients with high-grade osteosarcoma of any site enrolled on North American cooperative group trials CCG-7943, POG-9754, INT-0133, and AOST0121 were included in this study. Primary tumor site, age, sex, ethnicity, histologic response, and presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis were evaluated for their impact on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). A total of 1054 patients were eligible and had complete data available for the study. Age was not significantly associated with any other presenting covariate analyzed except sex. Age 18 or older was associated with a statistically significant poorer EFS (P = .019) and OS (P = .043). The 10-year EFS and OS in patients <10, 10 to 17, and ≥18 years old were 55%, 55%, 37% and 68%, 60%, 41%, respectively. The poorer EFS in patients ≥18 years old was because of an increased rate of relapse. Presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis, poor histologic response, and pelvic tumor site were also associated with a poorer prognosis. In multivariate analysis, age continued to be associated with poorer EFS (P = .019) and OS (P = .049). In osteosarcoma, age 18 to 30 years is associated with a statistically significant poorer outcome because of an increased rate of relapse. Poorer outcome in adolescent and young adult patients is not explained by tumor location, histologic response, or metastatic disease at presentation. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.Cancer 01/2012; 118(18):4597-605. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA), increased pretreatment serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) activity is a negative prognostic factor, associated with shorter disease-free intervals and survival times, but a biologic basis for observed differential serum BALP activities in canine OSA patients remains incompletely defined. OBJECTIVE: Serum BALP activity will correlate with absolute tumor burden in dogs with OSA. ANIMALS: This study included 96 client-owned dogs with appendicular OSA. METHODS: In canine OSA cell lines, the expression and membranous release of BALP was evaluated in vitro. The correlation between serum BALP activity and radiographic primary tumor size was evaluated in OSA-bearing dogs. In dogs developing visceral OSA metastases, serial changes in serum BALP activities were evaluated in relation to progression of macroscopic metastases, and visceral metastatic OSA cells were evaluated for BALP expression. RESULTS: In vitro, BALP expression was not associated with either tumorigenic or metastatic phenotype, rather the quantity of membranous BALP released was proportional with cell density. In dogs devoid of macroscopic metastases, there was a positive correlation between serum BALP activity and absolute primary tumor size. In dogs with progressive OSA metastases, serum BALP activity increased and coincided with the development of macroscopic metastases. OSA cells derived from visceral metastatic lesions retained BALP expression. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Tumor burden is a determinant of serum BALP activity in dogs with appendicular OSA. The association between increased pretreatment BALP activity and negative clinical prognosis may simply be attributed to greater initial tumor burden, and consequently more advanced tumor stage.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 06/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Wide excision with a 2-3 cm safe margin is widely-accepted in treating high-grade osteosarcoma. However, a wider margin sacrifices more healthy bone and may jeopardize joint function. We hypothesize that our innovative hemicortical resection for such tumors leads to better joint function without higher recurrence rate. METHODS: Between August 2002 and April 2007, six patients of high-grade osteosarcoma were treated with hemicortical resection and biological reconstruction. RESULTS: Five tumors were located around the knee and one was located in the distal tibia. The mean tumor size was 20.5 cm(3) . The bone defects were reconstructed using recycled autograft in four cases (one by extracorporeal irradiation; three by liquid nitrogen) and structural allograft in two. In an average follow-up of 52 months (24-96), all patients survived without local recurrence or metastasis. All bone grafts incorporated well without mechanical failure or infection. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score was 97.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Hemicortical resection for high-grade osteosarcomas located eccentrically in the long bones may be a reliable technique leading to good joint function by preserving surrounding healthy tissues. The functional outcome was encouraging, although long-term follow-up is mandatory to validate. With the advancement of chemotherapy and radiographic three-dimensional imaging, the safe margin in wide excision of high-grade osteosarcoma may be narrowed down in light of joint surface preservation. J. Surg. Oncol (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Surgical Oncology 12/2011; · 2.64 Impact Factor