Article

Pectoralis major and other myofascial/myocutaneous flaps in head and neck cancer reconstruction: experience with 437 cases at a single institution.

Head and Neck Surgery and Otorhinolaryngology Department, Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa Hospital do Câncer A. C. Camargo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Head & Neck (Impact Factor: 2.83). 01/2005; 26(12):1018-23. DOI: 10.1002/hed.20101
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pectoralis major and other myofascial/myocutaneous flaps have been recognized as important reconstructive methods in head and neck cancer surgery. Even with the worldwide use of free flaps, they are still the mainstay reconstructive procedures in many centers.
We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients with head and neck cancer who underwent an immediate reconstruction with pectoralis major or other myofascial/myocutaneous flaps at a tertiary cancer center from 1982 to 1998.
A total of 437 patients were reviewed. Three hundred seventy-one patients underwent pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps; of these, 335 (90.3%) were men, with a median age of 56 years (range, 24-91 years). Tumors were located at the oral cavity and oropharynx in 246 patients (66.3%). Most tumors were at an advanced stage at presentation (T3-T4 in 60.9%). The flaps were used to cover mucosal defects in 280 patients (75.5%), skin defects in 62 patients (16.7%), and both in 29 patients (7.8%). In most patients, the flap was transferred to the head and neck region through a subclavicular tunnel. The overall complication rate was 36.1%, with 2.4% of cases involving total flap necrosis.
To date, this is the largest published series of patients who underwent reconstruction with a pectoralis major flap. Our results show that this flap remains an important reconstructive method, and it can be done with low risk and acceptable morbidity.

1 Bookmark
 · 
101 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Countless disadvantages of the "old" pectoralis major have been listed while the amazing versatility of the free flap armamentarium gives the opportunity to suit the defect deriving from virtually every ablative head and neck surgery with a tailored reconstruction. Nevertheless, pectoralis major is still the "workhorse" for head and neck reconstruction in developing countries thanks to its ease of harvest, and minimal requirements in term of instrumentation. Furthermore, even in facilities with a high volume of reconstructions by free flaps, a certain number of pectoralis major flaps is still raised every year. The history, present role and current indications of the most widely head and neck reconstructive procedure ever has been reviewed.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives/HypothesisTo review the fistula rate in irradiated patients undergoing salvage laryngectomy, compare the effect of closure type on fistula rate, and examine possible perioperative risk factors that might contribute to an increased fistula rate.Study DesignCase series with chart review.Methods We conducted a retrospective review of the University of Pittsburgh head and neck tumor registry and identified 73 patients from 1998 to 2011 who had received prior radiation before total laryngectomy or salvage laryngectomy and who had either primary closure, pectoralis major myofascial (PMMF) flap onlay, or pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap.ResultsFistula was more common in patients who underwent initial primary closure (45%) than in patients who had immediate PMMF onlay (10.5%). The fistula rate for patients who underwent immediate PMMC flap was 28.6%, intermediate to primary closure and PMMF flap. Several factors were evaluated for relationship to fistula, but no significant associations were identified. However, patients with fistula tended to have longer inpatient stays and may have been more likely to have a history of cardiovascular or hypoxic disease.Conclusion Pharyngocutaneous fistula is a well-established complication of total laryngectomy and is especially a concern in patients with a previous history of radiation. Our retrospective review demonstrates that PMMF onlay flap appears to be more effective in reducing the rate of fistula compared to primary closure in these patients. Myocutaneous augmentation flaps, in contrast, have a fairly high fistula rate and may be better replaced with alternative closures such as free flaps.Level of Evidence4. Laryngoscope, 2014
    The Laryngoscope 07/2014; 124(12). DOI:10.1002/lary.24796 · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the era of free-flap transfer, the pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap still plays a unique role in head and neck reconstruction. We report on a patient with a recurrent hypopharyngeal carcinoma after total pharyngolaryngectomy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in whom defects included a circumferential defect of the oropharynx and the entire tongue. The defects were successfully reconstructed with a T-shaped pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap whose skin island included multiple intercostal perforators from the internal mammary vessels. This flap design is effective for reconstructing circumferential pharyngeal defects in vessel-depleted neck.
    04/2014; 2(4):e129. DOI:10.1097/GOX.0000000000000074

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
36 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014