Hippocampal involvement in detection of deviant auditory and visual stimuli.
ABSTRACT Recent models of hippocampal function have emphasized its role in processing sequences of events. In this study, we used an oddball task to investigate hippocampal responses to the detection of deviant "target" stimuli that were embedded in a sequence of repetitive "standard" stimuli. Evidence from intracranial event-related potential studies has suggested a critical role for the hippocampus in oddball tasks. However, functional neuroimaging experiments have failed to detect activation in the hippocampus in response to deviant stimuli. Our study aimed to resolve this discrepancy by using a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique that drastically improves signal detection in the hippocampus. Significant hippocampal activation was observed during both auditory and visual oddball tasks. Although there was no difference in the overall level of hippocampal activation in the two modalities, significant modality differences in the profile of activation along the long axis of the hippocampus were observed. In both left and right hippocampi, an anterior-to-posterior gradient in the activation (anterior to posterior) was observed during the auditory oddball task, whereas a posterior-to-anterior gradient (posterior to anterior) was observed during the visual oddball task. These results indicate that the hippocampus is involved in the detection of deviant stimuli regardless of stimulus modality, and that there are prominent modality differences along the long axis of the hippocampus. The implications of our findings for understanding hippocampal involvement in processing sequences of events are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to assess the value of resting-state fMRI in detecting the acute effects of alcohol on healthy human brains. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were studied by conventional MR imaging and resting-state fMRI prior to and 0.5 hours after initiation of acute alcohol administration. The fMRI data, acquired during the resting state, were correlated with different breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC). We use the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus as a seed for the default mode network (DMN) analysis. ALFF and ReHo were also used to investigate spontaneous neural activity in the resting state. Conventional MR imaging showed no abnormalities on all subjects. Compared with the prior alcohol administration, the ALFF and ReHo also indicated some specific brain regions which are affected by alcohol, including the superior frontal gyrus, cerebellum, hippocampal gyrus, left basal ganglia, and right internal capsule. Functional connectivity of the DMN was affected by alcohol. This resting-state fMRI indicates that brain regions implicated are affected by alcohol and might provide a neural basis for alcohol's effects on behavioral performance.BioMed Research International 01/2015; 2015:947529. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social impairments alongside cognitive and behavioral inflexibility. While social deficits in ASD have been extensively characterized, the neurobiological basis of inflexibility and its relation to core clinical symptoms of the disorder are unknown. We acquired functional neuroimaging data from two cohorts, each consisting of 17 children with ASD and 17 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children, during stimulus-evoked brain states involving performance of social attention and numerical problem solving tasks, as well as during intrinsic, resting brain states. Effective connectivity between key nodes of the salience network, default mode network, and central executive network was used to obtain indices of functional organization across evoked and intrinsic brain states. In both cohorts examined, a machine learning algorithm was able to discriminate intrinsic (resting) and evoked (task) functional brain network configurations more accurately in TD children than in children with ASD. Brain state discriminability was related to severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors, indicating that weak modulation of brain states may contribute to behavioral inflexibility in ASD. These findings provide novel evidence for a potential link between neurophysiological inflexibility and core symptoms of this complex neurodevelopmental disorder.Cerebral Cortex 01/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A major goal of aging research is to identify early markers of age-related cognitive decline. Persons with Down syndrome (DS) experience accelerated aging and high risks for dementia, making them a valuable albeit understudied model for testing such markers. This study examined event-related potential (ERP) indices of visual memory in younger (19-25 years) and older (35-40 years) adults with DS using a passive viewing paradigm that did not require memorization or behavioral responses. ERPs were recorded in response to unfamiliar urban and nature scenes, with some images presented once and others repeated multiple times. Within 600 to 900 milliseconds after stimulus onset, repeated stimuli elicited more positive amplitudes in younger participants, indicating stimilus recognition. ERPs of older adults did not show such increases, suggesting reduced memory functioning. ERP indices were unrelated to participants' intellectual functioning, but did correlate with age and caregiver-reported lethargy/withdrawal behaviors. Passive ERP measures of memory processes are sensitive to early stages of cognitive decline in DS and are promising markers of cognitive risk for future aging studies.Neurobiology of aging 08/2013; · 5.94 Impact Factor