Hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: A follow-up study
ABSTRACT To study prevalence of hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) during a 1-year period, and identify factors predictive of the onset of hallucinations in patients who were hallucination-free at baseline, 141 unselected outpatients with PD were evaluated prospectively for a set of demographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables and the presence of hallucinations during the previous 3 months. Patient groups were compared with nonparametric tests, and logistic regression was applied to significant data. Follow-up data were available for 127 patients. The hallucination prevalence rates (%) at the first and second evaluation were, respectively, 41.7 and 49.6 for hallucinations of all types (NS), 29.1 and 40.2 for minor hallucinations (i.e., presence or passage hallucinations, and illusions) (P = 0.02), 22.8 and 21.2 for formed visual hallucinations (NS), and 8.7 and 8.7 for auditory hallucinations (NS). Hallucinations rarely started or ceased during the study. The most labile forms were minor hallucinations, which developed in 20% of patients and ceased in 9%. During follow-up, 15% of patients started to hallucinate. Three factors, all present at the first evaluation, independently predicted the onset of hallucinations in patients previously free of hallucinations at baseline (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval): severe sleep disturbances (14.3; 2.5-80.9), ocular disorders (9.1; 1.6-52.0), and a high axial motor score (5.7; 1.2-27.4). Hallucinations have a chronic course in most parkinsonian patients. Factors predicting the onset of hallucinations point to a role of extranigral brainstem involvement and a nonspecific, facilitating role of ocular disorders.
Article: [Parkinson's disease and psychoses.][Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Psychotic symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are associated with increased disability, worsened quality of life, and poor long-term prognosis. In this article, clinical features, hypotheses on pathogenesis, and current treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) are reviewed. According to epidemiological studies, the prevalence of PDP is between 20 to 40 %. Complex visual hallucinations are the most common psychotic symptoms and are present in 17-72 % of the patients. Other sensory disturbances encompass tactile hallucinations and minor hallucinatory phenomena, such as sense of presence and visual illusions. Hallucinations are often accompanied by delusions, whose most frequent themes are persecution and jealousy. The pathophysiology of PDP remains unclear. Different factors have been implicated, including Levo-dopa and dopaminergic medications, neurotransmitter imbalances, neuroanatomic alterations, abnormal visuospatial processes, and genetic predisposition. The first-line strategy in the treatment of persistent and problematic PDP is represented by reduction in anti-PD medications. Second-generation antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, with clozapine being demonstrated as the most effective and tolerable drug for PD patients.
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD.01/2015; 6(1):65-76. DOI:10.4103/0976-3147.143197
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ABSTRACT: Psychosis in Parkinson Disease (PDP) is a common clinical problem and presents a pharmacological therapeutic conundrum. Many patients with PDP require anti-parkinsonian drugs for motor control, but the use of these medications has been associated with worsening of the psychotic symptoms. Differences from other psychotic disorders include the association with the use of anti-parkinsonian drugs, and the common presentation with visual hallucinations. Understanding of the pathophysiology of this phenomenon in PD has grown over the last few decades with the realization that the dopaminergic system is not the sole player. This has led to pharmacological research beyond antipsychotics. In this article we review the general management of PDP, the available evidence for the pharmacological management of PDP, and the medications profile and safety. Useful tables, practical recommendations and treatment algorithm are proposed.Current Drug Therapy 09/2012; 7(3):151-163. DOI:10.2174/157488512803988094